Chapter 8 Towards green networks of cities for the twenty- first century
Millennia of Moral Syndromes, World-Systems and City/State Relations
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In the twenty-first century humanity will need its cities more than ever; they really will have to be extraordinary. Their task may be nothing less than saving the planet as a home for humanity. Please excuse the hyperbole, but things may get that serious in the lifetimes of people living today. However not everyone sees it this way. There is a long-term anathema to big cities by guardian elites that can be traced back at least as far as classical Greece and continues today. In times of challenge and stress it is understandable that people should look to a supposed simpler past at a presumed smaller scale. Trying to regain some control in a rapidly changing world, a return to the local, has been alluringly attractive. This was a common reaction to industrialization in the nineteenth century from both conservative and radical perspectives (Hunt 2004).

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