Chapter 10 Conclusion
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During the past three decades of China’s urbanization, the transition from state-controlled to market-oriented development guided by national policy and the ongoing transition from pursuing fast growth to restructuring and improving the quality of urbanization have become increasingly mutually dependent and inseparable. The simultaneous occurrence of these two transition stages provided China with an opportunity. However, owing to the speed with which socio-economic development in China has occurred, it was impossible to complete institutional transitions such as transforming peasant workers into full citizens, or transforming China’s population from a semi-urban to an urban population immediately. With the vast remaining supply of rural surplus labor that will likely continue to be released as a result of agricultural modernization, the semi-urban population will continue to exist or even expand. This will hinder the improvement of urbanization quality unless government at every level adopts appropriate policies to manage migration and improve the quality of urbanization. The transformation from a semi-urban to an urban population has two potential pathways.

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