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This chapter provides an overview of the move to the digital economy and the state of technology and security in cyber space. The threat of cybercrime to economies and businesses is introduced in this chapter. It covers cybercrime in the financial sector, which is the prime target of cybercriminal activities worldwide, and discusses the drivers behind those attacks. The chapter also covers the development of cybercriminal activities as an industry, identifying the three prime categories: (1) crimeware-as-a-service; (2) cybercrime infrastructure-as-a-service; and (3) hacking-as-a-service. Edward Snowden is also discussed as a special case in this chapter. The chapter then moves on to discuss cybercrime and nation states, specifically in the four countries identified as hubs for cybercriminal activities: Russia, China, North Korea and Iran. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the drivers of cybercrime in developing/emerging economies and why those drivers are turning many countries into fertile grounds for cybercriminal activities.

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