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Certification and Collective Marks

Law and Practice

Jeffrey Belson

Certification and Collective Marks is a thoroughly updated and augmented edition of Certification Marks, first published in 2002. This comprehensive study forms a wide-ranging inquiry, with comparisons of the certification and collective mark systems of the UK, EU and US, whilst also referring to other systems. In addition to the laws and policies impacting ownership and use of these marks, also addressed are their historical development, registration and protection, certifiers’ liability, legal and commercial significance, use in regulatory and technical standardization frameworks, and emergent sui generis forms of certification, namely ecolabels and electronic authentication marks in digital content. This publication is especially timely in light of the advent of the EU certification mark and the controversial EU proposals to extend the Geographical Indications system to include non-agri-food products.
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Jeffrey Belson



Figure A.1  The first 12 entries made on the register of London Coopers’ marks at the London Guildhall in 1420


Figure A.2  A selection of London Coopers’ marks registered in 1420. The marks are arranged in three rows to highlight the similarities between the marks in each row.

Note: The marks in Figures A.1 and A.2, were recorded following an ordinance of 1420, issued by the Mayor, Richard Whittington, and the Court of Aldermen, that every Cooper within the liberty of London should have his own iron mark or sign for marking barrels and kilderkins and have the same entered on record. Pursuant to the above ordinance the Coopers A.1 and A.2 residing within the franchise of the City were to present their marks, made of iron, to the court within 14 days, to be there recorded.

Reproduced with kind permission of the London Metropolitan Archives. These marks are recorded in the City’s Letter Book I at fos 246 and 247.

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