Chapter 3 The fourth industrial revolution
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Chapter 3 analyses the fourth industrial revolution: what technological innovations are involved, to what extent the speed of change in this revolution is faster than in previous revolutions, the impact on manufacturing systems and the position and efforts of different countries in this deep transformation. An important characteristic of this revolution is that data seems to be the raw material of this new development phase. Digitalisation and hyperconnection are thus key transforming strategic elements of socio-economic systems, and industry in particular. A new manufacturing regime seems to be emerging, after mass production and flexible production of the second and third revolutions respectively, namely mass customisation.

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