The extraction of natural resources is promoted and prioritized by national governments in Latin America as a fast-track route to the economic development of the majority. However, its negative impact on minority groups, particularly indigenous peoples, is a cause for concern. This study aims to analyze a clear contradiction between compliance with an emerging social contract regarding consultation rights and the use of aggressive mechanisms – including emergency powers – to protect lucrative business contracts. The study charts gains, setbacks, and missed opportunities for the protection of indigenous rights in the context of a renewed wave of extractivism in Latin America.
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