We raise key philosophical questions that underpin the study of people and organizations, and examine how our answers to them are reflected in scholarship based on different research paradigms. Burrell and Morgan's two dimensions - subjective vs. objective and regulation vs. radical change - capture the perspectives of organization researchers and are related to various paradigms of organization and management research. Van de Ven's Engaged Scholarship framework is presented as a foundational, philosophically grounded, and broadly focused logical and methodological guideline for conducting rigorous research at the intersection of theory and practice. Research becomes progressively more engaged as it moves from basic research informed by practice and theory to collaborative basic research that explicitly connects theory to practice and incorporates the knowledge and purposes of practitioners into the research. Such research inevitably raises value-laden and ethical issues. Researchers who want to influence practice have an obligation to puzzle through ethical conundrums and conflicting and often polarized values and purposes, and to make their purposes and values orientation clear to themselves and to those who might participate in the research and/or apply the findings.
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