Chapter 1 Systemic change in the Old World Order
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The collapse of the Bipolar World Order in the late 1980s and the transformation in the world system opened a historical opportunity for systemic change in ECE. This chapter defines the Old World Order and New World Order as major periods of the world system, with the rise of the New World Order following the global crisis. These world systems have given the international frame of ECE developments in two stages, with a big turning point in Europeanization and democratization around 2010 from chaotic democracy to the emerging authoritarian systems. The Euro-Atlantic integration of ECE produced the illusion of rapid democratic transition, which has evaporated, and now it is high time to uncover the entire controversial development in ECE in its two main stages of declining democracy resulting in its actual collapse.

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