The Polish government seeks to improve energy security and maintain low prices through a fossil fuel strategy reminiscent of the Communist era. The emphasis is on energy inputs and economic output by building gas networks and retaining coal to fuel industry and low-priced heating and electricity. This chapter addresses how a geopolitical approach forces the country to maintain fossil fuels to sustain low energy prices. Also covered is the recent development of ‘energy clusters,’ community-based energy systems that address both sustainability concerns and meet the everyday requirements of citizens and businesses. Polish society accepts coal mining as a way of life; nonetheless, they are also demanding cleaner air. The heritage of coal feeds the socio-political dialogue. Still, a managed phase-out of mines and power plants is necessary from both an economic and social perspective as well as a financial one.
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