Chapter 2 Who are the shareholders?
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This chapter examines many different types of shareholder and shareholding connection with a company. It begins by describing the dominant corporate law and governance paradigm that shapes our thinking about shareholders. Against this background, the chapter looks at the difference between individual and institutional shareholders, describing in particular the impact of superannuation/pension funds, hedge funds, private equity firms and index funds. The chapter then considers four ways in which shareholders will vary: duration of ownership, size of shareholding, type of company, and direct vs indirect connection to company. Given this diversity, the chapter concludes by explaining that the remainder of the book refers to shareholding in a listed public company as its standard reference point.

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