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In chapter 2, we contextualize AI historically and describe how AI has evolved into a broad concept that covers many different technologies. We explain which techniques belong to AI and the criteria we have used in this book to select cases. The field of AI has been in development for such a long time, that there have been many key milestones in its history. The definition of AI has evolved with the achievement of these milestones and as different techniques have come into play. The 'learning' ability of AI is now the central characteristic that distinguishes AI from other 'intelligent technologies', such as knowledge management systems. A consequence of the learning capability of AI and the amount of data available is an increase in complexity. Resulting AI systems are increasingly 'black-boxed' with major consequences for work and organization.

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