Edited by Alain Fayolle and Paula Kyrö
Chapter 7: Enterprise Education in Different Cultural Settings and at Different School Levels
7. Enterprise education in diﬀerent cultural settings and at diﬀerent school levels Ulla Hytti INTRODUCTION Enterprise education and entrepreneurial studies have been strongly promoted and in some countries included by legislation in the national curricula. European countries have diﬀerent entrepreneurial cultures, and diﬀerences should be reﬂected in the enterprise education programmes and curriculum structure. Terminology diﬀers according to culture, and this makes transnational exchange of knowledge and research in the ﬁeld diﬃcult. In planning research in the area of enterprise education we encountered a lack of comparable material across Europe. The terms used in one culture do not carry the same meaning in other cultures, and this makes theory and programme development diﬃcult. Hence, any understanding and interpretation of entrepreneurship must reﬂect the social, cultural and historical environment in which the activity is embedded. In diﬀerent times and places entrepreneurship has had diﬀerent meaning, such as (external) entrepreneurship, which is about setting up and managing small businesses and/or growth-oriented, entrepreneurial ventures; intrapreneurship, which is understood as an entrepreneurial way of action within an organization; and enterprising behaviour, which deals with the behaviours, skills and attributes of any individual in all spheres of life (Kyrö, 1996). The diﬀerentiated understandings of entrepreneurship are linked to diﬀerent sets of learning objectives in enterprise education which may be categorized under three headings: (1) learning to understand entrepreneurship; (2) learning to become entrepreneurial; and (3) learning to become an entrepreneur (see also...
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