Handbook of Creative Cities
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Handbook of Creative Cities

Edited by David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson and Charlotta Mellander

With the publication of The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida in 2002, the ‘creative city’ became the new hot topic among urban policymakers, planners and economists. Florida has developed one of three path-breaking theories about the relationship between creative individuals and urban environments. The economist Åke E. Andersson and the psychologist Dean Simonton are the other members of this ‘creative troika’. In the Handbook of Creative Cities, Florida, Andersson and Simonton appear in the same volume for the first time. The expert contributors in this timely Handbook extend their insights with a varied set of theoretical and empirical tools. The diversity of the contributions reflect the multidisciplinary nature of creative city theorizing, which encompasses urban economics, economic geography, social psychology, urban sociology, and urban planning. The stated policy implications are equally diverse, ranging from libertarian to social democratic visions of our shared creative and urban future.
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Chapter 11: Research Nodes and Networks

Christian Wichmann Matthiessen, Annette Winkel Schwarz and Søren Find


Christian Wichmann Matthiessen, Annette Winkel Schwarz and Søren Find Research is by definition an innovative and creative activity, and as such in itself a driver of urban growth. Interaction between researchers in different cities further enhances creativity as researchers work together to improve their performance. We claim that researchers from different cities work together to improve their output and that the result of collective work is greater than the sum of individual efforts. Research co-operation contributes to the status of a given city and, when added up, it demonstrates the nodal position of the centres in question. Co-authorships thus represent connectivity, and wellconnected research cities are likely to be important cities in the global economy; nodality in research often corresponds to nodality in other parts of the local economy. Based on earlier work (see, for example, Matthiessen and Andersson, 1992), this analysis is a continuation of our research on the global system of knowledge centres. Such centres are defined as urban regions as used in a number of earlier papers (Matthiessen and Schwarz, 1999; Matthiessen et al., 2000, 2002a, 2002b, 2006, 2010). Matthiessen and Andersson (1992) identified the major European research centres and analysed the composition of research for each city by classifying total research output by disciplines. Multivariate statistical methods made it possible to identify different types of research cities. Later papers (Matthiessen and Schwarz, 1999; Mathiessen et al., 2000, 2002a, 2002b) used a global approach, analysing the changing performance of the world’s major research centres. In those...

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