Handbook of Creative Cities
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Handbook of Creative Cities

Edited by David Emanuel Andersson, Åke E. Andersson and Charlotta Mellander

With the publication of The Rise of the Creative Class by Richard Florida in 2002, the ‘creative city’ became the new hot topic among urban policymakers, planners and economists. Florida has developed one of three path-breaking theories about the relationship between creative individuals and urban environments. The economist Åke E. Andersson and the psychologist Dean Simonton are the other members of this ‘creative troika’. In the Handbook of Creative Cities, Florida, Andersson and Simonton appear in the same volume for the first time. The expert contributors in this timely Handbook extend their insights with a varied set of theoretical and empirical tools. The diversity of the contributions reflect the multidisciplinary nature of creative city theorizing, which encompasses urban economics, economic geography, social psychology, urban sociology, and urban planning. The stated policy implications are equally diverse, ranging from libertarian to social democratic visions of our shared creative and urban future.
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Chapter 25: Contract, Voice and Rent: Voluntary Urban Planning

Fred E. Foldvary


Fred E. Foldvary ‘Creative’ means both innovative and productive of greater value, production being the creation of economic value. Voluntary urban planning occurs when individuals are freely able to create: to design and operate their own buildings, environments and actions. Voluntary planning exists with contractual communities, which include both associations of co-owners and proprietary communities with renters. Purely voluntary development occurs when there is no imposed zoning and land-use restrictions; instead, covenants and easements provide flexible land-use agreements. Voluntary planning would seek to maximize the community land rent, which in turn provides an efficient source of funding for its collective goods, in contrast to distortionary taxation. Decentralized contractual development and governance would enable entrepreneurs, associations and proprietors to fully explore and apply their creativity to both shape and satisfy the desires of the household and business consumers. VOLUNTARY ACTION AND PLANNING Human action is voluntary in the absence of coercive harm, and when there is no restriction or imposed cost on peaceful and honest planning and human action. ‘Harm’ means, in this context, an invasion into the domain of others, excluding what may be merely disagreeable due to the recipients’ beliefs and values. Hence, harm is distinct from offences that are displeasing but are not invasions (Foldvary, 1980). A plan is a design and foundation for a construction or action. A building plan is the blueprint or map from which an edifice is constructed. A town or urban plan is a design for the physical elements of a city such...

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