Restricted access

The Who examines an extended range of users and communities adding value to the creative process. Conventional models of creativity present it as a self-contained loop and focus on the individuals, teams or organisations as the point of origination. But the value chain of creativity actually extends on through process of consumption, adaptation and co-creation. The Who considers which stakeholders and/or communities you might co-create with? Widening the circle of co-creation might stem from a desire to democratise creativity, or to engage what Jay Rosen named 'the people formerly known as the audience'. It might reflect changing cultural norms (definitions of orginality and authorship), the influence of new digital technologies and industry structures, it might be a purely commercial decision (maximising added value by involving consumers as co-creators) or it might be more altruistic - a 'gift' designed to engage communities and build a sense of community and reciprocity. The framework for this part of the book considers these collaborative, co-creative relationships as expanding circles, with networks of co-creation and collaboration radiating outwards beyond the sole author or genius creator • The first circle of co-creation, joining the circle, recognises that creative value depends upon the recipient as well the initiator. This involves a complicity between producer and consumer, allowing ideas to be co-authored or customized at the point of consumption • The second circle, reversing the circle, takes those diverse reimaginings and repurposings and feeds them back to the point of origin. Here co-creation is a feedback loop in which the products of collaboration and user-experience are reinvested to generate new forms of cultural and economic value or brand equity • Expanding the circle describes a more generous pattern of co-creation, designed not to draw value back to the centre but to open up opportunities to those on the periphery, spreading creative possibilities beyond the creative core • Finally, breaking the circle, describes a more anarchic pattern with no defined starting point or outcome, instead a viral spreading and sharing of ideas with no obvious purpose or method sees patterns emerge and new value created.

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Access options

Get access to the full article by using one of the access options below.

Other access options

Redeem Token

Institutional Login

Log in with Open Athens, Shibboleth, or your institutional credentials

Login via Institutional Access

Personal login

Log in with your Elgar Online account

Login with you Elgar account