The Who framework: four circles of co-creation
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In this chapter we include the following six recipes • Producer and musician Jack White, using his 'Third World Records' store to engage with fans, allowing them to co-create their own artifacts • Tower Records Japan, tapping into the creativity and energy of fans to rescue a failing fanchise, with the fan economy compensating for falling music sales • NBA Jam, in which the NBA found that allowing others to 'mess' with their brand would eventually re-invent the sport for a new generation • Oprah Winfrey and Shonda Rhimes opened the closed circle of American media to other marginalised directors and writers • Norway's Cultural Rucksack and Sweden's music schools are programmes that produce wider impacts in the commercial creative industries • Harlem Shake illustrates 'viral spread', where a creative act with no obvious point of origination or purpose produced unforeseen 'surplus' benefits.

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