Chapter 13 Affirmative action and equality, diversity, and inclusion in Malaysia
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This chapter explains the existing affirmative action policies in a multiethnic Malaysian society. A brief overview of the Malaysian context since the postcolonial era and the emergence of New Economic Policy is discussed in detail. The theoretical relevance of external macro environmental factors, horizontal inequalities framework and institutional theory are explained. An integrated policy analysis approach of the available secondary data indicates the prominence of various structural, political, economic and social factors that align closely with the existing affirmative action policies in Malaysia and those that promote preferential treatment causing interethnic gaps and disparities. The areas of education, employment and business creation and/or development in Malaysia are discussed in light of the existing affirmative action policies. Content analysis reveals the need for revitalization of the existing affirmative action policies for the betterment of education, employment and business development in Malaysia through careful incorporation of equality, diversity and inclusion measures for reducing the interethnic differences.

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