Chapter 2 AI actors and the landscape of AI regulation
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An international law of artificial intelligence is emerging from the interactions between various actors: private firms, industry associations, universities, professional associations, nation states, international organizations, and civil society, all of which have interests in artificial intelligence applications and their impacts, and who advocate particular norms to govern them and others. These actors, informed by inner logics, advocate a variety of tools along a range of soft and hard norms and laws to govern artificial intelligence: general principles, statement of ethics, private ordering through contract, national strategies, and formal regulations, laws, and treaties. These stakeholders are in a dynamic relationship, “co-producing and co-enforcing norms of governance,” so that the various forms of regulation are no longer exogenous to a system but emerge from the participants themselves. These interactions reshape an already-existing, normative landscape at the international level, a landscape in which stakeholders in AI stakeholders act and that those stakeholders are trying to change.

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