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The general conclusion summarises six key findings and conclusions. First, ASEAN economic integration has been piecemeal, resulting in complex IIA relationships among ASEAN member states and between ASEAN member states and other countries. Second, increased fragmentation and current experience with ISDS suggest that ISDS reform in ASEAN is needed. Third, however, ASEAN lacks a unified voice in the global debate and ASEAN member states seem apprehensive about structural reform. Nevertheless, ASEAN member states can use the global debate to identify a 'baseline' for reform. Fourth, proposals for structural reform at the international level raise points of concern for ASEAN member states that the latter should heed. Fifth, establishing a regional ASEAN Investment Tribunal may have certain advantages for ASEAN member states over other reform proposals; however, political support for it seems lacking at least for the time being. Sixth, operationalising ISDS reform by ASEAN member states requires careful design.

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