Chapter 5 Manifesting future disadvantage - class, gender and pension accrual of the low-educated young in Europe
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This study investigates the degree to which 25-29-year-old men and women with a basic education only were building poverty risks for retirement in 24 European countries in 2019 and how their situation has changed since 2002. It shows that the low-educated young have become a small but even poorer minority. Their economic activity rates have fallen, with very low female rates. Pension policies reinforce the poverty risks of this group, as employment-related pension rights and means-tested benefits have fallen, and carers' compensation are below those of workers. To reverse such disadvantage policymakers' priorities must be to focus on educational opportunities, access to substantial employment and protection for times of inactivity due to care responsibilities; in addition, the cuts in pension system generosity, which have affected those with basic education severely, need to be reversed.

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