Within the social science literature on contemporary immigration and immigrant incorporation, considerable theoretical debate has revolved around the notion of immigrant transnationalism (Glick-Schiller et al., 1995; Portes et al., 1999; Kivisto, 2001; Joppke and Morawska, 2003;Waldinger and Fitzgerald, 2004; Levitt and Jaworsky, 2007; de Haas,2010). During the 1980s, migration scholars began emphasizing the extent to which international migration consisted of mutually reinforcing processes unfolding in both sending and receiving communities (Massey et al., 1987, 1994; Grasmuck and Pessar, 1991). This bi-directional flow of people, goods and ideas across borders appeared inconsistent with classical perspectives of ‘assimilation’ and called into question traditional notions of citizenship and the state (Bloemraad et al., 2008). In light of this, based on ethnographic research in migrant communities, many scholars argued that a theory of transnationalism, rather than assimilation, more adequately described the dynamics of international migration in a world that is increasingly interconnected owing to technological change.
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