This chapter presents Article 5 of the CoE Convention against Trafficking, which deals with the prevention of trafficking in human beings. Article 5 is the first provision of the Convention’s Chapter II on ‘Prevention, co-operation and other measures’, outlining a broad range of preventive measures to be taken, including research, awareness-raising and training. Prevention should be built on a human rights-based approach, gender mainstreaming and a ‘child-sensitive’ approach. The chapter begins with a short introduction, generally providing an overview of the main issues covered by the chapter. It then reviews the drafting history of the provision; provides a comparative analysis of this provision in the context of other international or regional legal instruments focused on human trafficking; and finally discusses issues of interpretation.