This chapter presents Article 18 of the CoE Convention against Trafficking, which deals with the criminalisation of trafficking in human beings. The provision imposes an obligation upon the Parties to criminalise human trafficking in their national legislation. The chapter begins with a short introduction, generally providing an overview of the main issues covered by the chapter. It then reviews the drafting history or preparatory work of the provision; provides a comparative analysis of this provision in the context of other international or regional legal instruments focused on human trafficking; and finally discusses the interpretation of the text and the legal issues. The chapter closes with a conclusion.