Chapter 20 Psychological torture
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The chapter defends that, although torture always includes physical and psychological components that are inextricable, there is a need to reflect on the idea of psychological torture (PT) based on pragmatical and pedagogical reasons. Defines PT as the use of techniques of physical, cognitive, emotional or sensory attacks that target the conscious mind aiming to coerce, break the will and ultimately produce an identity breakdown of the person. The author defines the existence of 3 archetypes of psychological torture, including examples: Type 1: Pure cognitive and emotional suffering, Type 2: No-touch physical manipulation of the body, Type 3: Physical attack that targets the mind. The chapter develops an integrative theoretical model of torture (not just psychological torture) that shifts the focus from pain to self and identity, including some paradigmatic case studies. After reviewing available data on short and long-term consequences, the chapter ends with a summary of essential case law related to the notion of psychological torture.

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