Elinor Ostrom’s work is a relevant perspective for reframing the landscape concerning the market–state dualism and highlighting alternative conceptions of collective action and social transformation. Based on studies of the commons, this chapter explores three theoretical frameworks. First, the governance of common-pool resources helps exemplify the diversity of third sector organizations inside a neoclassical perspective. Second, the governance of social economy organizations and the common property regime open avenues on collective property rights and the involvement of both interest-oriented and democratically based stakeholders. Third, the governance of civil society organizations and the governance of the new commons enrich the thematic by deepening the conceptualization of economy beyond the market and the conceptualization of politics beyond the state. By focusing on the specificity of the social and solidarity economy as well as the commons, it is possible to renew critical thinking in governance studies and to propose new public policies.
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