In this chapter, we explore strategies of radical, that is emancipatory, social transformation in the countryside. Which actors strive to challenge dominant rural social structures? What strategies do they deploy in order to do so? To answer these questions, we introduce the theoretical basics to which scholars in critical agrarian studies refer with regard to the peasantry’s potential to drive forward a radical transformation in social and political-economic structures, and we sum up how this has been discussed recently in the field. We present three different strategies applied by actors who are engaged in creating alternatives to capitalism in the countryside. In the concluding section, we discuss these strategies with regard to their scope, premises and interlinkages. We argue that radical transformation is occurring through the gradual change of institutions, which in the long run may have considerable effects on the structures upon which capitalism is built.
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