This chapter examines the “intra-EU” and “extra-EU” disputes that have arisen under the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT). It starts by recalling the history of the ECT and its object and purpose as a sector specific treaty aimed at providing a high level of protection for investors. It then examines the question of whether ECT tribunals have jurisdiction to consider intra-EU disputes, concluding that they do. This chapter further considers the role of EU law in ECT cases involving an EU Member State, noting that it has no role to play when considering questions of jurisdiction but potentially more significant role with respect to the merits of the dispute. Finally, this chapter considers the significance of the European Court of Justice’s decision in the Achmea case on the applicability of the ECT in disputes between EU investors and EU Member States.
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