Chapter 14 The geographic and linguistic variety of online labour markets: The cases of Russia and Ukraine
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The turn of the millennium marked the emergence of a new type of labour market in which workers - often referred to as freelancers - digitally deliver services to clients through dedicated online labour platforms.One important feature of these labour markets is that they potentially do not have geographical boundaries. In contrast to place-based digital platforms, such as taxi or delivery apps, online labour platforms match workers from any location to global pools of work opportunities without requiring workers' physical mobility (Horton 2010; Malone and Laubacher 1998; Graham et al. 2017). As such, they help to overcome distances and constraints of local demand through 'virtual migration' (Aneesh 2006). Given this, the development of online labour markets has been heralded as leading to the 'flat world' (Friedman 2007) and making spatial location increasingly irrelevant to economic activity.

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