The chapter aims to replicate a study using the 2008 ESS data that examined whether it is market forces (in particular the state of the economy) or institutional arrangements (unemployment benefits and active labour market policies) that matter more in explaining cross-national variation in subjective employment insecurity across Europe. The previous study showed that for the early stages of the 2008 financial crisis, such variation was mainly driven by economic factors, while differences in institutional arrangements regarding unemployment had little impact. However, Europe has recovered from the crisis to a degree, with generally lower levels of unemployment and improved GDP growth rates. Therefore, the aim of the chapter is to determine whether market forces were still more influential in explaining the level of perceived insecurity in 2016–2017, eight years after the crisis, or whether welfare state institutions can now better explain the cross-country variation.
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