Chapter 2 The role of European Union in creating Europe of knowledge
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The chapter provides an analysis of how the European knowledge society discourse has constructed the economic and entrepreneurial perspective in higher education from the late 1990s to present times. The authors elaborate on the role of the European Union in this process through the cases of the Bologna Process, Lisbon Strategy, and President Macron's initiative of European Universities in the Gothenburg meeting in 2017. These examples show that despite higher education being governed nationally, the 'knowledge Europe' narrative, especially when taken on the agenda of 'policy entrepreneurs', has been influential in paving the way for more entrepreneurially-oriented universities across Europe.

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