Many ports and airports operate in a highly competitive environment. But there may also be situations where some actors hold significant market power, with the risk of that power being abused. At that time, benchmarking of ports and airports as a whole, as well as of the individual actors, can be helpful in identifying potential problems of inefficiency and /or abuse of monopoly power. This chapter considers two case studies, one concerning alleged State aid in the Antwerp seaport and the other the economic regulation of the Brussels Airport Company. The underlying idea is that each case and the corresponding learning process can offer potential input for similar situations in other countries.
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