Whistleblowing has a long lineage. In recent decades, there has been growing societal awareness of the public interest in whistleblowing and the personal, professional and financial toll endured by those who expose wrongdoing. Regulators have taken notice, with an increasing number of jurisdictions enacting whistleblower protections laws. These developments have coincided with rapid technological innovation. Orthodox communication technologies along with big data, artificial intelligence and blockchain are beginning to have a dramatic effect on the nature of whistleblowing. The rise of data transparency has enabled technology to replace whistleblowers by algorithmically preventing and detecting misconduct. Technology is also supporting traditional human whistleblowers, by providing secure and anonymous channels for disclosure. Finally, technology is altering the nature of whistleblowers and whistleblower protections, including by blurring the distinction between whistleblowers, hackers and leakers. This chapter analyses these developments to consider the future of compliance and how technology is replacing, empowering and changing whistleblowers.
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