Chapter 5 Referrals
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The rules regarding the referral of cases pursuant to Articles 4(4), 4(5), 9 and 22 of the Merger Regulation complement the system of allocation of jurisdiction based on the turnover thresholds described in the previous Chapter. Whilst those thresholds have always provided, and continue to provide, the general criteria for the vertical distribution of jurisdiction between the Commission and national competition authorities, they are, as already mentioned, a rather blunt instrument for allocating jurisdiction.

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