Since the Urban Pilot Projects in the early 1990s to the Pact of Amsterdam cities have been part of ECP and much has been written on the relationship between ECP and cities. We will briefly summarize this process, highlighting the discursive shift from an anti-poverty agenda to broader concerns about territorial cohesion and the place-based approach. The focus of the chapter will take an instrumental view of the role of cities in ECP. While cities may be an instrument of territorial cohesion the wider implications for Europe’s urban structure have not been discussed at length and there has been a tendency to focus on larger cities. By ignoring small and medium-sized cities, the EU Urban Policy has rather than enhancing territorial cohesion (and economic and social cohesion) exacerbated existing tendencies towards territorial inequalities.
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