In such extreme conditions, Sassen tryes to de-stabilise the concept of the border in the context of depredatory practices base on expulsions and extractive logics (see for example here the chapter on the Amazones in the handbook) in different regions of the global South. This multi-decade history of destructions of rural economies and expulsions dressed in the clothing of ‘modernization and development’ has reached extreme levels today: vast stretches of land and water bodies are now dead due to mining, plantations, and water extraction by the likes of Nestle. At least some of today’s localized wars and conflicts in Africa arise out of such destruction and loss of habitat; climate change further reduces livable ground. And access to Europe is no longer what it used to be. Accordng to Sassen, this mix of conditions - wars, dead land, and expulsions of smallholders from their modest economies in the name of ‘development’ - has produced a vast loss of life options for a growing number of people in more and more communities. We see this in areas as diverse as Africa, Central America, and parts of Asia, notably Myanmar.
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