Collaborative approaches to governance have been initiated to address some of the most complex and difficult problems facing society today. This chapter reviews the principles and concepts embodying collaboration and its evolution from a range of disciplines. It reviews the emergence of collaboration in the United States, Europe and globally. It explores the concept of collaboration and its principles across a diversity of disciplines, including urban planning, public administration, public policy, political science, conflict resolution and other fields. The authors unpack the concepts of challenges faced by collaboration and the extent to which these represent limitations or shortcomings of theory and practice. They also examine the concept of governance and its changing nature in relation to decision making, participants in this decision making and the role of government. The chapter concludes with an overview of each chapter in the book and its contributions to (1) theory and context, (2) problems and context, (3) policy politics and power, (4) organizations, stakeholders and governance, and (5) process and participation.