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Susan A. Hill and Stylianos Georgoulas

Hill and Georgoulas present a thorough analysis and review of the vast literature on internal corporate venturing (ICV). The review underscores the diversity of research foci and approaches, which would account for the varying interpretations and findings reported in the literature. Their analysis spans the 1960–2009 period, providing a rare glimpse into the evolution of theory and empirical research in this core area of CE. The discussion covers the forms of ICV; how it differs from other modes of venturing; its role in the parent firm’s strategy and organization; how the parent’s strategy influences the use of and results from ICV; how a firm’s organizational context may influence ICV outcomes; and the various ICV processes firms undertake. The authors take great care to identify several organizational variables that influence ICV outcomes, particularly autonomy, top management support, corporate evaluation systems, reward systems and human capital. Likewise, the authors highlight the temporal dimension of ICV operations. Readers should gain much from considering the trends uncovered in this vast review of the literature that covers different levels of analyses and modes of organizing ICV. The analyses reported also show some interesting changes in the research focus, reflecting changes in corporate practices. The authors also identify important future research questions. Their discussion reinforces the centrality of ICV as a core research issue, the multiplicity of issues examined within this body of research, the progress made to date and the challenges awaiting future research.

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Shaker A. Zahra, Donald O. Neubaum and James C. Hayton

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Edward F. McQuarrie and Barbara J. Phillips

This chapter explains why the 1890s are a suitable point of beginning for a historical examination of visual branding in the United States. It profiles five phases in the development of visual branding in the context of magazine advertising: (1) tentative early attempts around 1900; (2) rapid development in the 1920s; (3) growing sophistication in the 1950s; (4) the culmination of color printing in the 1980s; and (5) and the transition to the new, Photoshop-influenced era of digital media in the 2000s. This chapter also develops the importance of technological developments in shaping actual practice in visual branding.
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Hans Westlund and Johan P. Larsson

This introductory chapter treats four issues: general relationships between social capital and space; what regional development is; the importance of social capital for regional development; and a summary of the other chapters. The first section contains a discussion on the relationships between social capital and space, distance, barriers and spatial hierarchies on how social capital is affected by, but also has an impact on these phenomena. The next section deals with and problematizes the question of what regional development is in forms of economic outcomes, well-being and various aspects of sustainability. Based on the view that social capital is created in all sectors of society as well as between them, the third section discusses which forms of social capital are most important for regions’ development. One important conclusion is that ‘maximum’ social capital seldom is the best solution. Instead, the best social capital for regional development can be described as optimum combinations of homogeneity and heterogeneity, bonding and bridging links and different ‘vintages’ of networks, norms and values. Finally, the chapters of the book are summarized.

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Edited by Michael H. Morris and Eric Liguori

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Young Rok Choi and Dean A. Shepherd

Opportunity exploitation is a necessary step in creating a successful business in the entrepreneurial process, yet there has been little conceptual and empirical development of this issue in the literature. This study examines the decisions of entrepreneurs to begin exploiting business opportunities from a resource-based view. Our analysis of a sample of entrepreneurs whose businesses are located in incubators suggests that entrepreneurs are more likely to exploit opportunities when they perceive more knowledge of customer demand for the new product, more fully developed necessary technologies, greater managerial capability, and greater stakeholder support. Moreover, the findings of this study shed a light on a less emphasized aspect of the resource-based view: the new product’s anticipated lead time acts as an enhancing moderator in entrepreneurs’ exploitation decision policies. Implications for future research on opportunity exploitation are discussed.
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Dean A. Shepherd

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Anders Örtenblad

This chapter presents the research area and research questions and introduces the remaining chapters of the book. It is argued that while there are quite a few works on how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is practiced in various contexts, there is a need for more research on how CSR should be practiced by organizations in various generalized contexts, and, thus, that there is a need for a contingency model of CSR. A broad, general definition – based on Jeremy Moon’s work – in terms of seven aspects is introduced, and this definition is used as a common starting point for the book, in which the relevance of each aspect is examined for organizations in various generalized contexts. The chapter also presents the research questions for the book, which are to pay attention to and acknowledge the need for examining the relevance of CSR for organizations in different generalized contexts as an emerging research field, to explore the universality of CSR, to offer knowledge (as well as support for further knowledge-seeking) on how the general model of CSR needs to be adapted to become relevant to organizations within particular generalized contexts, and to begin the work on constructing a contingency model of the relevance of CSR for organizations in various generalized contexts.

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Ulla Hytti, Robert Blackburn, Denise Fletcher and Friederike Welter

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Cristina Díaz-García, Candida G. Brush, Elizabeth J. Gatewood and Friederike Welter