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Edited by Adrian Wilkinson, Jimmy Donaghey, Tony Dundon and Richard B. Freeman

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Brian Christopher Jones

The idea that written constitutions serve as an essential and significant educational device among the citizenry needs to be reconsidered, as this wishful thinking often exaggerates the potential effects these documents may possess. This chapter highlights that in many jurisdictions large portions of the citizenry had not even heard of these supreme governing documents, let alone could they articulate distinct provisions or explain the complexities of their workings. This is true not only for long-established constitutions, but also for more recently adopted constitutions. Even in jurisdictions that possess high levels of constitutional idolatry, such as the United States, knowledge and understanding of the written document and governmental operations presented a wide variety of public knowledge gaps. Further, citizens in jurisdictions lacking a written constitution perform just as well on citizen knowledge surveys as those citizens who possess such a written document. The chapter also demonstrates that some elements of written constitutions—such as preambles—openly invite idolatry by: making exaggerated claims about the role of ‘the People’; championing a state’s historical greatness; explicitly connecting God as an author of the constitution; and praising the written constitution’s ‘genius’.

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Katerina Pantazatou

This chapter aims to present the EU measures in place in order to implement the ATAD effectively. It starts by briefly discussing the increasing secondary law in the exchange of information, it then focuses on the most recent measure of mandatory disclosure rules and automatic exchange of information as provided in the DAC 6. It discusses DAC 6 content and examines the challenges that arise therefrom, notably the danger of over-disclosure, possible breaches of taxpayers’ rights, and possible inconsistencies in its implementation that might lead to the Directive not being fully effective.

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Jamie A. Gruman and Alan M. Saks

The chapter introduces the constructs of employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement. The former refers to the degree to which employees enlist their ‘full selves’ when speaking up at work. The latter pertains to organizational members’ shared perceptions of employee voice engagement. It is suggested that employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement are a function of four dimensions of voice: voice frequency, voice type, voice target and voice quality. Building on Kahn’s work on personal engagement, we present a model in which psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety and psychological availability serve as antecedents of, and support a climate of, employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement. Implications for research and practice and discussed.

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Niall Cullinane and Jimmy Donaghey

This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on the phenomenon of employees who do not speak out: employee silence. It highlights that work in the area to date has been dominated scholars from an organizational behaviour approach. While this has made a valuable contribution in highlighting a new area for study, this chapter highlights that power relations and interests need to be brought more to the fore when examining why employees may not speak out. In doing so, silence is reconceptualized as part of the ongoing exchange between management and workers which either party may pursue in terms of advancing their interests. The chapter finally outlines potential areas where such an approach to silence may provide interesting avenues of research.

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Glenn Patmore

The theory of participatory democracy enables us to appreciate the relationship between employee voice and Western democracy. The workplace offers opportunities to see how participatory democracy is feasible in our day-to-day lives. However, it is only through legal obligations imposed by the state upon employers that universal rights to participate in workplace decisions can be conferred on employees. The author’s examination of participatory democracy and employee voice is developed in three parts. The first describes a participatory theory of democracy; the second presents an example of workplace democracy, drawing on Australian and European laws (as implemented in the United Kingdom); and the third evaluates these state-based laws in terms of the objectives of participatory democracy, the common problems in their operation, and possible future directions for research. Significantly, employee involvement and participation laws in Australia and Europe fall short of the theory’s objectives and are in need of reform.

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Chad T. Brinsfield and Marissa S. Edwards

This chapter examines how employee voice and silence, and closely related concepts, have been studied in the field of organizational behavior. The authors first provide a brief history of this scholarship, which they organize according to voice-focused and silence-focused concepts. Within this framework, they overview research specifically focused on employee voice and on employee silence. In addition, they examine closely related concepts (for example, whistleblowing, spirals of silence, complaining) and factors that have been shown to influence voice and silence (for example, psychological safety, silence motives, group voice climate). Next, the authors address some noteworthy unresolved issues such as the implications of distinguishing between voice and silence, and not treating them as mere opposite ends of a voice–silence continuum. Lastly, they discuss several more contemporary related issues such as the implications of social media, and the potential for positive social impact.

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Paul Willman, Alex Bryson, Rafael Gomez and Tobias Kretschmer

Whether it is better to adopt voice or exit depends on the nature of the transaction for both parties. The strongest voice-sustaining equilibrium is where both parties see voice as preferable to exit. This is likely where both parties have substantial sunk costs. In other circumstances, there is no voice-sustaining equilibrium. The authors apply insights from transaction cost economics to voice and exit in the employment relationship. They consider which types of employment relationship are likely to sustain voice and which are not, using a model of the employment contract that originates with Oliver Williamson. Based on this, they use a simple cost-benefit model which deals with two related questions. First, where is voice likely to emerge? And second, what type of voice is it likely to be? The authors then apply the model empirically to workplace data for the United Kingdom to shed light on the size and composition of the ‘no voice’ sector; the emergence of a sizeable ‘non-union’ voice sector; the persistence of unionization among existing establishments; and the economic outcomes associated with voice choice by firms.

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Bruce E. Kaufman

The research literature on employee voice near-universally portrays the concept as a relatively recent development with its conceptual origin in Hirschman’s book Exit, Voice and Loyalty and application to employment relationships in Freeman and Medoff’s What Do Unions Do? While these authors may have been the first to develop and apply a formal theory of voice, this chapter demonstrates that the generic concept of employee voice goes back more than two centuries, such as Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations. The use of the employee voice term and idea slowly expanded over the 19th and early 20th centuries among economists, trade unionists, managers and social radicals, bracketed by Marx at one end and Rockefeller at the other. The chapter next examines the historical development of alternative employee voice forms and organizational structures, such as employer-created shop committees, independent trade unions and employee-owned enterprises, and assesses their respective pluses and minuses. The chapter ends with implications for current-day voice research.

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Adrian Wilkinson, Tony Dundon, Jimmy Donaghey and Richard B. Freeman

This chapter sketches out an analysis of various academic streams and disciplines that illuminate our understanding of employee voice from these different perspectives. The authors explain how research on employee voice has gone beyond union voice and non-union voice to build a wider and deeper knowledge base and provide a guide to the debates about the different dimensions of employee voice and to the research findings in different areas. They review the meanings and purposes surrounding the definitions of voice; consider the role of key actors in the workplace; and evaluate the different forms and processes of voice in different spheres, contexts and organizational settings. They set out the contribution of the different approaches to employee voice to help extend our understanding of what goes on in the workplaces that are at the heart of modern economies.