Civil society organizations have emerged as a significant new actor within the field of worker voice, seeking to advance the interests of working people both within national economies and at an international scale. This chapter reviews this activity, focusing on five issues. It examines which categories within the working population civil society organizations seek to represent and the particular interests that they strive to advance. In addition, it considers the methods that civil society organizations use in relation to their worker constituents, to employers and to government. Throughout, the chapter develops a comparison between the form of voice offered to working people by civil society organizations and that offered by trade unions. It examines the extent and manner in which the activities of the former differ from those of the latter, and considers the question of coalition: whether these two institutions can work jointly and reinforce one another’s efforts to provide worker voice.
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Edmund Heery and Steve Williams
Luca Pennacchio and Alessandro Sapio
This chapter reviews the econometric issues arising in the estimation of the causal effects of venture capital (VC) on the performance of startups. Specifically, we deal with econometric methods that investigate the certification, treatment and selection effects of VC on outcomes pertaining to industrial performance (firm growth) and financial performance (IPO underpricing). Our review tracks the role of VC in the performance of entrepreneurial firms along their life cycle, illustrating specific results from the literature and highlighting open issues and suggestions for further research.
Bernardo Buarque de Hollanda
This chapter deals with the intellectual discussion about the idea of Latin America, with the objective of showing how this debate is manifested in the context of the region’s professional football. The argument proposed is that the design of a Latin American unit encountered difficulties regarding the construction of identity throughout its history, more precisely between the late nineteenth century and the end of the twentieth century. As geographical territories often cross historical periods of continuous exchange between unity and fragmentation, approximation and distancing, the Latin American case draws attention to the particular characteristics of its colonial heritage. Without being only a dimension of the past, such influences became more complex throughout the twentieth century, when the emergence of the United States, during the so-called “Progressive Era”, as a hegemonic power began to have decisive effects on Latin American economy, politics and culture. The chapter’s purpose is to suggest that, although US hegemony is uncontested in all contexts of collective life in Latin America, its presence was not directly felt regarding modern sports, especially in the practice of professional football and the intercontinental tournaments of clubs and national teams. In this context, the otherness remained focused on the other side of the Atlantic: either on the United Kingdom, responsible for inventing the rules of sports practices; or on Latin European countries – France, Italy, Spain and Portugal – that influenced in institutional and cultural terms the styles and playing techniques in South America.
Edited by Guillaume Vallet
Jeffrey Nathaniel Parker
Roderick D. McKenzie published his dissertation The Neighborhood: A Study of Local Life in the City of Columbus, Ohio in its entirety in serialized form over five issues of the American Journal of Sociology in 1921 and 1922. A sprawling multi-method examination of the social life of Columbus, it is among the earliest of what we might now call a neighborhood study, and suggested theoretical directions later taken up by more famous exemplars of the First Chicago School. For the most part, though, it has been ignored. This chapter suggests two reasons for its relative anonymity: infelicitous timing and the fact that it occupies a liminal category that has made it difficult to leverage in debates about the Chicago School of Sociology. More to the point, it suggests that we might still learn lessons from The Neighborhood these many years later, specifically its deep theorization on the epistemology of neighborhoods that anticipates important concerns in urban sociology today. Moreover, the collective forgetting of The Neighborhood also provides lessons about canonization and about the continuing debates over the Chicago School.
Claudia Yamu and Akkelies van Nes
The debate on urban complexity, and, more specifically, the application of a fractal logic in urban planning and design gained prominence in the late twentieth century. Several researchers have engaged in this theoretical debate, while others have applied this logic within spatial analyses of urban patterns, with the aim of better understanding urban planning effects. Further, some researchers have simulated ‘fractal’ cities. In this chapter, we demonstrate how a multifractal, multiscalar simulation model can be used as a tool for guiding spatial development to enable the identification of potential areas of urbanization and to protect continuous green or unbuilt areas. This simulation model can facilitate the implementation of strategic urban development plans across different scales, ranging from the neighbourhood scale to the regional scale. All scalar levels are interlinked through the application of an iterative logic underlying a multifractal pattern. We demonstrate how this multifractal, multiscalar model can be applied to resolve planning issues.
Anti-tax avoidance has a long history in the European Union. It begins with the concept of ‘abus de droit’ as developed in French case law under the Civil Code of 1804. From its application in different areas of civil law, that concept also found its way into EU law through the CJEU’s jurisprudence. Abuse of law thus developed into a pillar of EU law, spreading through the law of customs duties, VAT and income taxation as a principle restricting the unlimited exercise of the EU fundamental freedoms. Recent legislative developments at the international and the EU level may be upending the balance found in previous case law. It is not clear how the CJEU will react to the shift from an analysis of all facts and circumstances of each individual case of tax avoidance to a more general approach of characterising a category of arrangements as ‘base erosion’ on the base of certain indications or hallmarks. The purpose of this chapter is to shed light on the difference between ‘abuse’ and ‘base erosion’ and to show how the development of the latter concept poses a formidable challenge to the exercise of the fundamental freedoms in the EU.
Pablo Ayala-Enríquez, Nathalia Franco-Pérez, Jean G. Guerrero-Dib and Gonzalo Pizarro-Puccio
Academic integrity has not been widely studied in Latin America. This chapter gives a brief account of the most recent studies, and then presents a recent contribution by the authors to the literature. They undertook a quantitative, exploratory, non-experiential study with a sample of 1008 undergraduate students from four private universities from Chile, Colombia and Mexico. The study was established around two thought-based ethical notions: akrasia, and the principle of alternate possibilities. Despite popular belief, Latin American students are not born culturally programmed to cheat, so it is necessary to understand why they do it, what can lead them to report academic misconduct, and how academic integrity relates to professional performance in the workplace and to the civic culture in the region.