This chapter aims at presenting how survival analysis methods can be used to study topics related to entrepreneurship. The availability of data that allow the identification of how long a subject is in a state, represents an opportunity to study transitions from one state to another taking into account the length of each spell. In this chapter I use the example of the time that a startup firm takes to leave a business incubator and go through the econometric specification of a continuous time parametric model applied to the study of transitions into multiple possible destinations. I also discuss some alternatives to this specification, such as the Cox Proportional Hazards model and discrete time duration models.
Marc Cowling and Wei Yue
There is an evolving body of empirical evidence suggesting that larger banks charge a higher interest rate for apparently homogeneous loans. We explain why the dominant market position of large banks might lead to more expensive loans for smaller firms, and, if they do, the likely consequences of such behaviour. However, we find little evidence that big banks price loans to small firms at a higher rate than larger firms. Rather, we find important differences in terms of what types of firms and what types of loans are sought and offered by Big-4 banks compared to smaller banks. The determinants of loan interest rates, even when they coincide across Big-4 and smaller banks, differ significantly in magnitude between Big-4 and smaller banks.
Virginia Doellgast and Chiara Benassi
This chapter provides an overview of cross-national variation in the structure and strength of collective bargaining institutions. Several dimensions are compared, including the actors involved, the level of bargaining, the degree of coordination, and the mechanisms for extending collective agreements. The chapter then discusses the implications of collective bargaining for organizational and macroeconomic performance as well as for workers’ outcomes, including wage levels, job security and control of work. Past research shows that these effects depend on country and sector-specific bargaining rights and structures. Despite cross-national variation, in many countries collective bargaining has partly lost its ability to reduce wage inequality as a result of declining labour power vis-à-vis management.
On the basis of preliminary research developed in a European project, the members of the project’s consortium discovered that a short and intensive entrepreneurial training programme was missing. To address this, the consortium created the iStart Academy. ComoNExT iStart Academy is designed to guide the participants through the lean start-up process (from ideation to validation, pivoting and pitching). The structure is based on interactive lectures, teamwork and mentoring. During the Academy, students have the opportunity to experience the birth of a new venture. In particular, the Academy has improved the managerial skills of young entrepreneurs and allowed them to adopt a marketing approach to develop a new venture and innovative solutions. The project was founded on a relational orientation.
This chapter offers a critical review of the literature covering missing voices in organizations. It identifies diversity management as a missing theoretical paradigm in the literature on employee voice, and illustrates the cases of women, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons and ethnic minorities in the workplace. The chapter is structured as follows. First it examines the notion of employee voice and also explains various vehicles or mechanisms used to enable employee voice. It then describes the notions of missing voices and diversity and looks at the reasons why diverse employees’ voices may be missing, suppressed or ignored in organizations. The chapter then describes the missing voices of three diverse groups: women, ethnic minorities and LGBT persons. Finally, a summary of practitioners’ insights is offered, followed by practical and theoretical implications.
Edited by Adrian Wilkinson, Jimmy Donaghey, Tony Dundon and Richard B. Freeman
Jamie A. Gruman and Alan M. Saks
The chapter introduces the constructs of employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement. The former refers to the degree to which employees enlist their ‘full selves’ when speaking up at work. The latter pertains to organizational members’ shared perceptions of employee voice engagement. It is suggested that employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement are a function of four dimensions of voice: voice frequency, voice type, voice target and voice quality. Building on Kahn’s work on personal engagement, we present a model in which psychological meaningfulness, psychological safety and psychological availability serve as antecedents of, and support a climate of, employee voice engagement and collective voice engagement. Implications for research and practice and discussed.
Niall Cullinane and Jimmy Donaghey
This chapter provides a critical review of the literature on the phenomenon of employees who do not speak out: employee silence. It highlights that work in the area to date has been dominated scholars from an organizational behaviour approach. While this has made a valuable contribution in highlighting a new area for study, this chapter highlights that power relations and interests need to be brought more to the fore when examining why employees may not speak out. In doing so, silence is reconceptualized as part of the ongoing exchange between management and workers which either party may pursue in terms of advancing their interests. The chapter finally outlines potential areas where such an approach to silence may provide interesting avenues of research.
The theory of participatory democracy enables us to appreciate the relationship between employee voice and Western democracy. The workplace offers opportunities to see how participatory democracy is feasible in our day-to-day lives. However, it is only through legal obligations imposed by the state upon employers that universal rights to participate in workplace decisions can be conferred on employees. The author’s examination of participatory democracy and employee voice is developed in three parts. The first describes a participatory theory of democracy; the second presents an example of workplace democracy, drawing on Australian and European laws (as implemented in the United Kingdom); and the third evaluates these state-based laws in terms of the objectives of participatory democracy, the common problems in their operation, and possible future directions for research. Significantly, employee involvement and participation laws in Australia and Europe fall short of the theory’s objectives and are in need of reform.
Chad T. Brinsfield and Marissa S. Edwards
This chapter examines how employee voice and silence, and closely related concepts, have been studied in the field of organizational behavior. The authors first provide a brief history of this scholarship, which they organize according to voice-focused and silence-focused concepts. Within this framework, they overview research specifically focused on employee voice and on employee silence. In addition, they examine closely related concepts (for example, whistleblowing, spirals of silence, complaining) and factors that have been shown to influence voice and silence (for example, psychological safety, silence motives, group voice climate). Next, the authors address some noteworthy unresolved issues such as the implications of distinguishing between voice and silence, and not treating them as mere opposite ends of a voice–silence continuum. Lastly, they discuss several more contemporary related issues such as the implications of social media, and the potential for positive social impact.