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Tomáš Foltýnek and Dita Dlabolová

Most academic integrity literature in Eastern Europe focuses on corruption and plagiarism. This focus on negative issues has led to a punitive approach to academic integrity which emphasizes detection and penalties instead of preventative measures stemming from a culture of academic integrity. Nonetheless, there are many projects promoting a positive approach which are in place, and these are gradually changing academic culture. This chapter is based on a literature review of journal papers on academic integrity in Eastern Europe. It provides an overview of ongoing projects and initiatives at the local, national and international levels. These initiatives aim to shift the overall mindset in Eastern European societies from one driven by detection and penalties to a positive approach aiming to build a culture of academic integrity. Furthermore, academic integrity is strongly bound to democracy, and it is a lack of democracy in Eastern Europe which is arguably acting as a hindrance to this development.

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Katherine Seaton

The concerns of tertiary mathematics students and educators have not yet been well served by the academic integrity literature. This chapter suggests reasons for why this may have occurred: tacit assumptions about the universal applicability of the existing literature to all disciplines; the opacity of mathematics to non-specialists because of both its content and the use of symbols; and misperceptions of the nature and demand of mathematics assessment at the undergraduate level. The chapter proposes research directions which can speak meaningfully into this void and engage the attention of mathematical specialists about the critical importance of academic integrity.

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Gert de Roo, Ward Rauws and Christian Zuidema

Change occurs at all times. However, current changes are accompanied by an unprecedented dynamism and complexity. It is a consequence of an enormous and increasing rate at which new developments emerge, developments with a global nature that are also completely interwoven with the local environment, such as the internet, social media, economic uncertainty and the energy transition. The interconnectedness of these processes is only increasing, and their dynamics have an unstoppable effect on almost everything. Societal processes are part of a dynamism in which connections that are deemed relevant, the intended approaches and the targeted processes that were embraced yesterday and still feel familiar today, could very well be entirely outdated by tomorrow. These are the circumstances that spatial planning is confronted with. Planning can no longer afford to ignore fundamental uncertainties. Key is how planning can relate to change in a way that is different from before. Adaptivity is often mentioned as the answer to increasing uncertainty, societal dynamism and spatial transformation. It is then about the way in which planning is able to respond to unforeseen, autonomous or spontaneously occurring changes (acting in response to change), the way in which planning is able to influence such changes (addressing the possibility to change) and how planning may increase the options for dealing with change (capacity to perform in moments of change). Based on this distinction, various forms of adaptive planning will be presented that together offer a world of planning opportunities.

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Erica J. Morris

This chapter explores the complex issue of contract cheating. It focuses on international evidence to unpack the issue, considers the current prevalence of the problem, and reviews the reasons reported in the research as to why some students may make use of academic custom writing services. In recent years, there have been serious concerns voiced by national agencies in higher education, and raised in the wider media, about student use of third-party services. There is, however, a priority to situate the issue of contract cheating in a wider debate about how universities and colleges can assure academic standards, enhance and embed academic integrity policy and practice, and advance evidence-informed pedagogy. To determine how the issue might be explored further, this chapter re-evaluates the predominant research areas and methodologies that have been employed to investigate the dimensions of the issue. Through reviewing established perspectives and recent evidence, recommendations for future research are proposed.

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Malcolm Torry

Chapters 9 and 10 explore the discipline of social policy. Chapter 9 contains the introduction for both chapters, and Chapter 10 conclusions for both. Chapter 9 discusses Paul Spicker’s and Hartley Dean’s different approaches to the discipline – the first attempting to solve today’s social problems, and the second asking what kind of society we wish to see – and finds the latter approach to be more likely to serve future society. The policy process – how policy is made – is discussed, along with the policy communities and institutions involved; and a discussion of complexity finds that a Citizen’s Basic Income would facilitate creative complexity. Six different feasibility tests and the relationships between them are then described, and the conclusion is drawn that implementation of Citizen’s Basic Income should begin with the age groups thought to be most deserving. A case study describes two financially feasible Citizen’s Basic Income schemes.

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Michael Batty

Here we define a generic problem of urban design as one in which the planner searches for an optimal location for some development by taking account of a series of potentially conflicting factors, all judged to be essential to the best design. The simplest problem is one where the factors are simply averaged to give the best location for the development but this kind of averaging does not take account of the fact that the factors are of differing importance. We extend the averaging problem to one where each factor is related to every other one with its own set of weights – degrees of importance – and this sets up a network of relationships between the factors. When these weights are applied in this way, each factor generates a new version of itself which is closer to the final design solution as it is a weighted average of all the other factors to which it is related. Then after this first iteration, the factors become sub-solutions to the problem. Continuing in this way, ultimately this averaging converges to a final solution where all the factors are identical. This process is strongly linked to a network of requirements – a social network – and although we note this, we simply introduce it as one of several analogies useful to thinking about how we can optimize location. Although we pose this as a design problem, we can turn it on its head and consider it as a problem whose solution is the actual development which we observe but whose factor weights are unknown. The problem then is to figure out how the set of factors can be weighted to generate the observed solution. This can then be treated as an artificial neural net, employing all the ideas that have been developed in the last 50 years about machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI). In short, we start with a design problem considered as one of networked averaging and then we reconfigure the problem as one where we observe the actual solution – which is the real world – and then we figure out how this can occur using a neural network. In this way, we relate how urban development actually occurs to its form as optimal design.

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Ernest R. Alexander

This chapter relates complexity to planning and institutional design. Complexity theories explain how self-organization creates complex adaptive systems (CAS), biological and human. Biological evolution is encoded in DNA; institutions are the DNA ordering human societies. Biological systems’ DNA developed by evolutionary adaptation, but human action is deliberate. Social institutions result from intentional decisions – institutional design. Institutional design is defined and described. There are three ‘levels’: the highest is ‘constitution-writing’; the meso-level (engaging planners) involves policy and implementation in substantive fields: e.g. economic development, environmental policy, infrastructure and human services. The micro-level involves intra-organizational institutional design and semi-formal or informal social units. After reviewing knowledge and methods for institutional design, the chapter discusses CAS’ relation to complexity. CAS’ internal and external complexity reflect their adaptation to the complexity of their environments. Finally, the chapter discusses complexity theory, research and institutional design. Human CAS are not like eco-systems: this conditions the application of complexity research to societies. But complexity theory offers insights for institutional design: CAS must adapt to their environments to succeed. The more complex their environments, the more complex CAS must become. Because each case is unique, general institutional design prescriptions are useless. Effective institutional design needs engaged and knowledgeable practitioners, and “goodness-of-fit” with the relevant environment is the only critical criterion for success.

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Malcolm Torry

This short final chapter concludes that each of the chapters has found that the Citizen’s Basic Income debate has contributed to the development of the academic discipline concerned, and that the discipline has contributed to the Citizen’s Basic Income debate. The way in which the modern Citizen’s Basic Income debate has evolved is briefly discussed, and more multidisciplinary research is called for.

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Stefano Moroni and Stefano Cozzolino

The chapter deals with the limits of regulation in complex systems, and is structured around three main questions. (i) Why is the city a complex system? Aside from the city having multiple objects and elements it is complex due to the fact that ‘the city is action’. The city is the emergent result of actions and continuous interaction over time. While actions are intentional behaviours with their own internal logic, the interactions of plural actions imply the emergence of unintentional socio-spatial configurations and an overall uncertainty of the system. By acting, we (intentionally) bring about certain things, while (unintentionally) provoking other things. (ii) What are the conditions within which actions take place? ‘Conditions’ for actions change from place to place. We will distinguish different kinds of conditions for action according to two main variables: first, we consider their nature, which can be ‘social’ or ‘material’; second, we focus on their genesis, which can be independent from human intervention or dependent on human activity. (iii) On which conditions can planners (effectively) intervene (and how)? Although planning rules are only one of the many conditions that influence actions in space, they represent the only condition that can be directly altered by planners to avert or favour certain situations in complex systems. It is exactly because the city is a complex system that only certain types of rules are better suited to deal with it. This brings us to two types of rules: directional rules to directly obtain a given order of urban actions, and relational rules to indirectly foster self-coordination of urban actions. This reasoning brings to the fore regulations that are relevant for the planner to consider when dealing with a dynamic city in action.

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Tracey Bretag and Rowena Harper

Non-university higher education providers comprise 75 per cent of all higher education providers in Australia, yet there is a dearth of research about academic integrity in these institutions. Findings from a nationally funded research project on contract cheating in Australian higher education reported that non-university higher education students were 12 times more likely than university students to report use of a professional service to cheat, but somewhat paradoxically they received more academic integrity training. This chapter takes the research further and explores why non-university higher education students, often referred to as college students outside of Australia, might be particularly vulnerable to commercial contract cheating services; and makes recommendations for ensuring that college students have access to appropriate academic and social support. Given the increasingly commercialized and internationalized nature of higher education globally, and the corresponding increase in the number of students moving through different kinds of institutions as part of their learning experience, academic integrity research relating to these institutions is urgently needed.