The penetration of social media and various digital technologies into daily life empowers both administrative actors and citizens to create new frameworks for interaction and multi-stakeholder collaboration and contributes effectively to the generation, acquisition and diffusion of information, which is valuable for urban dynamics detection and efficient cities monitoring and management. This chapter deals with the content generated by users through digital technologies and investigates its exploitation in the realization of the smart cities vision. The user-centric ways in which users participate in the creation of content are discussed, while a systematic literature review summarizing the issues that have been addressed through the exploitation of user-generated content, the means used for its creation, and the methods used for its analysis, is presented. Moreover, a novel framework for tourism and road passenger transport is proposed, which aspires to exploit the user-generated content shared by users during both their direct and asynchronous communication.
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Athena Vakali and Vaia Moustaka
Valeria Loscri, Nathalie Mitton and Riccardo Petrolo
With the increase of their population, cities must adapt to offer more efficient services and better life quality. ICT and Internet of Things are among the technologies that enable smarter transportation, waste collection, energy and resource management, etc. But this does not come at no cost and new services arise through the collection and processing of a large set of distributed and ubiquitous data. This chapter discusses the requirements needed to achieve a smart city, identifying the main technical challenges in the heterogeneity of devices, data, networks, protocols, and standards. To overcome these limitations, the authors propose their vision of a Cloud of Meshed Cooperative heterogeneous Things (CoMCoT). CoMCoT aims to enable every traditional city’s entity (node, user, and provider) to be exposed and consumed as a service. Beyond traditional Cloud of Things (CoT) services such as data abstraction and mutualization, the CoMCoT provides more holistic functionalities by aiming at full interoperability.
Sheila Slaughter and Barrett J. Taylor
In the US, trustees have linked universities to industry for at least a century. We extend existing research on this topic by exploring the ways in which “The Great Recession” reshaped trustee-mediated relationships between university and industry. We analyze university trustees’ ties to corporations at two elite universities, the University of Pittsburgh and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), by considering the number and type of affiliations that trustees held before (2005), during (2010) and after (2015) the Recession. Findings suggest that trustees of both universities remained highly connected to firms even after the Recession. However, MIT’s position was far stronger than Pitt’s after the Recession, as indicated by total ties and by the types of firms to which trustees linked the two universities. This indicated that university governance in the US reflects not only economic conditions but also factors within the field of higher education such as institutional stratification.
Nicos Komninos and Anastasia Panori
Smart cities offer a suitable environment for the creation of smart ecosystems by gathering organizations over digital platforms. Smart ecosystems produce externalities similar to spatial agglomerations, and act as environments of intelligence and problem-solving. This chapter identifies a four-layer structure of city intelligence that is generated in smart cities: (i) human intelligence encompassing human abilities and social interaction; (ii) artificial intelligence working complementary to human capabilities, encompassing data collection, mining and analytics; (iii) collective intelligence generated through user engagement and the population of digital spaces; and (iv) collaborative intelligence referring to open innovation, co-creation and co-design in institutions and systems of innovation. Smart cities develop a connected intelligence space, including dimensions of ‘human ability’, ‘artificial modelling’, ‘collectiveness’ and ‘collaboration’. Significant forces that act as connectors in this approach are awareness, collaboration, and positive externalities. Within smart city environments, organizations instead of being part of an established ecosystem have the capacity to build their own smart ecosystem on physical, institutional and digital spaces.
Lennon Yao-Chung Chang
Most organisations in both the private and public sectors rely heavily on the convenience brought by the Internet and computers. Inevitably, cybercrime and information security problems have lessened that convenience. This chapter examines cybercrime through the theory of the risk society and routine activity theory. It discusses how the nature of cybercrime fits into the framework of routine activity theory. Learning from the risk society and routine activity theory, it will also discuss the formation of strategies aimed at cybercrime prevention.
Rebecca WY Wong
This chapter examines the general features of environmental crime before providing a specific overview of crimes against protected wildlife. Three distinctive features of the illegal wildlife trade are discussed: (1) opportunistic poachers; (2) stages of distribution; and (3) the role of corruption. This chapter argues that altering the consumers’ perceptions of the value and meaning of wildlife products is key to long-term enforcement against the illegal wildlife trade.
Samuel Andrew Hardy
Popular understanding of heritage crime has been distorted by popular culture and sensationalist media. It has also been distorted by expert analysis that either overplays or underplays certain aspects, both of which are done in order to make state and society take the problem seriously. Nonetheless, such distortions may be significantly reduced, through open-source analysis of publicly accessible evidence. Open-source research demonstrates how, around the world, cultural property is being subjected to looting-to-order/theft-to-order, multi-commodity trafficking and online trafficking; exploited by organised crime; and exploited for money-laundering and conflict financing/terrorist financing. Organised cultural property crime, for instance, has been documented from Mexico to Russia to Turkey. Thus, empirical analysis and systematic review may provide evidence of the functioning of the illicit trade, drive intelligence-led policing and determine potential approaches to reducing harm, thereby increasing the interception of illicit goods, the disruption of supply lines and the deterrence of potential participants.
The chapter gives an overview of key topics and perspectives in criminological research on human trafficking. It argues that criminologists have made valuable contributions in the exploration of why it exists, its modus operandi, how governments approach it and what consequences policies have, as well as what perpetrator and victim constructions exist. Criminological research has the potential of contributing further to these and other questions, particularly by utilising criminologists’ abilities to understand crime in its larger sociocultural context, problematise the representability of crime statistics and estimates of the extent of crime, and explore the role of gendered and ethnic stereotypes in existing knowledge and policy. Much is taken for granted in relation to the extent and character of trafficking, as well as concerning the people involved, and criminology can contribute towards changing this by engaging in more theoretically informed explorations of trafficking and by applying knowledge from the study of other crimes and strategies of regulation in other fields.
Australia’s border policing regime for refugees seeking unauthorised entry by boat to claim asylum is premised on people smuggling being a form of transnational organised crime. However, while some level of organisation is required, people smuggling networks are fluid and non-hierarchical. Smuggling operations are more likely to be initiated or shaped by family and close social networks of refugees, who, after multiple journeys, become stranded in transit states such as Indonesia, with no formal status, little prospect of resettlement, and vulnerable to persecution and exploitation. Portraying this phenomenon as primarily about organised crime not only distorts meaningful understandings of organised crime but also diverts attention from the criminogenic and abusive practices, such as immigration detention, offshore processing, boat turn-backs and refoulement that characterise Australia’s border policing operations. A genuinely humanitarian approach to eliminating people smuggling would be to target the border controls that necessitate it.
The international fight against money laundering is costly. This does not have to be a problem if the benefits of this international fight outweigh its costs. Perhaps these are necessary costs to protect our societies. When we agree that crime should not pay, the main question is at what cost? How much would we be willing to spend on making crime less worthwhile? An efficiency analysis can inform us. In this chapter we discuss what we should know and what we do know about: (a) the amount of money laundering (is money laundering so big that we should fight it?); (b) the effects of money laundering (is it really a problem when money is laundered?); and (c) whether the fight against money laundering is worth it (what does a cost-benefit analysis tell us?).