Criminology has already made important contributions to understandings of terrorism and counter-terrorism, and its intervention is becoming ever more vital because of groups such as the Islamic State, which has inspired adherents and attacks across the world. Criminologists seek to explain terrorist activity and the impacts of state counter-terrorism. One strand in this approach derives from critical terrorism studies which highlight human security rather than state security and amplifies the voices of minorities and oppositions. Beyond critical terrorism studies, criminologists must range beyond their traditional focus on domestic criminal justice actors, such as the police and courts, to comprehend intelligence agencies, the military and border infrastructure, as well as the private sector and supra-national collaborations. In addition, prevention operates as a protean driving concept of counter-terrorism. The penology of terrorism must also be elaborated. The agenda may be ambitious, but methodologies will be challenged by vulnerable subjects and sensitive information.
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Kent Roach and Clive Walker
Nabil Bhatia and James Sheptycki
The global system is very complex and difficult to describe. Combining transnational and comparative criminological perspectives provides ‘binocular’ vision at an interdisciplinary intersection of inquiry where crime and crime control responses are manifest in the contested process of ‘making up’ global social order. This chapter provides an overview of the ways in which comparative and transnational viewpoints can be focused in different regional contexts, casting light on particular marginal crime phenomena such as crimes of the military and crimes against the environment. The transnational and comparative perspective opens up a field of inquiry which absorbs issues and theoretical ideas in the attempt to comprehend a global profusion of harms and threats that somehow converge around the politics and practices of crime definition and crime control. Polarised debates between ‘social constructionists’ and ‘realists’ regarding these issues produce a situation of radical confusion. We argue that this can be successfully mediated by taking advantage of the binocular vision the transnational and comparative viewpoint suggests.
Luca Mora, Alasdair Reid and Margarita Angelidou
In critically reflecting upon the first three decades of research on smart city development, this chapter exposes the division affecting this fast-emerging knowledge domain. This activity builds on a group of studies that the authors undertook between 2017 and 2018 in order to investigate the mechanisms of knowledge production shaping the intellectual structure of smart city research. In this chapter, these studies and their findings are examined. A synopsis is offered which captures the significance of the insights into the current state of smart city research that they have brought together. The significance of these studies lies in their ability to expose the absence of consensus in regard to selecting an approach to effectively manage smart city development, a condition which undermines smart city practice and the potential to deliver urban sustainability.
WE Purvis and RV Gundur
Despite shifts in public discourse and policy debates on illicit substances, global drug prohibition endures throughout most of the world. In this landscape, the actors and enterprises that cooperate and compete in the trade of illicit drugs continue to find enough opportunity to justify the risks of engaging in illicit trade. The drug trade today is facilitated and augmented by the growth of technology and the endurance of links forged by globalisation, resulting in several actors participating in the market. To that end, focusing on single actors or organisations limits our understanding of the business of drug trafficking and its transnational nature. Accordingly, this chapter focuses on four core technical functions of the drug trade: the production of drugs, their transportation, their wholesale, and their retail. Analysing these aspects of the business, alongside market trends and shifts in policy responses, shows the ways in which drug traffickers and sellers have adopted strategies to minimise risk, improve profit and protect their interests.
Margarita Angelidou and Luca Mora
The smart city aspects that tackle physical structure and form, such as spatial planning, are largely understudied. Out of the currently existing smart cities, most are insufficiently adapted to their physical and sociotechinical context. Addressing these shortcomings, this chapter identifies the possible classifications and typologies of spatial planning for smart city development by means of case study research. The research focuses on ‘star’ cases of smart cities, particularly Vienna, Thessaloniki, Stockholm, India’s smart cities, the Multimedia Super Corridor, Heraklion and Amsterdam. The authors identify two typologies of spatial planning in a smart city framework. The first one is based on urban functions and land uses, the overarching district character and the technical infrastructure that is aimed to be enhanced. The second typology is based on the spatial scale and includes the following classifications: national scale, regional – metropolitan scale, municipality – local scale and distributed or project-based scale.
Edited by Attila Varga and Katalin Erdős
Nathan M. Sorber
The Morrill Act of 1862 created the American land-grant universities and reshaped higher education in the United States. The legislation greatly expanded the number of public universities in the nineteenth century, creating the foundation of leading global universities like Cornell University, the University of California, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Wisconsin. This chapter traces land-grant universities evolving role in national, state, and regional development from origins until today through four domains: the national development framework, the local development framework, the human capital framework, and emergent frameworks in an era of privatization and commercialization. The chapter highlights the critical role that land-grant teaching, research, and knowledge dissemination have had on economic development strategies in the United States.
Katalin Erdős and Attila Varga
Valsamis Mitsilegas, Saskia Hufnagel and Anton Moiseienko
In an increasingly mobile and interconnected world, transnational crime – that is, crime that directly affects more than one country – is more prevalent than ever before. Against this background, transnational crime has become increasingly difficult to study, let alone counteract. Given its sheer diversity, the whole utility of thinking about transnational crime as a field of enquiry may appear questionable. Yet by focusing too closely on specialist areas of concern one risks missing the proverbial wood for the trees – that is, factors common to various strands of transnational crime and the shared challenges of addressing it. The objective of this Handbook is to serve as a guide for the exploration of major types of transnational crime and key geographical regions.
Legal perspectives on cybercrime are drawn from international agreements such as the Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime, domestic legislation and case law. Unauthorised access, modification and impairment of data and systems are criminalised as a means of protecting against attacks by ‘hackers’ and other interferences that undermine access, availability and the integrity of information and communications networks. Similarly, cybercrime laws extend to the creation and distribution of malicious software or ‘malware’, and the use of ‘botnets’ to commit other crimes. Cybercrime laws also incorporate the traditional offences of forgery and fraud, as well as newer offences relating to identity theft. Other crimes against the person that may be committed online include child pornography, child grooming, cyber stalking and harassment, and legislatures have responded to these crime types with new or updated offences. Finally, a range of procedural laws have been enacted to facilitate the investigation, prosecution and sentencing of cyber criminals.