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Lars Engwall

Standing on the shoulders of Plato and his school in Academia outside Athens, academies and learned societies (in the following academies) have been created extensively in Europe. The oldest existing one, Accademia dela Crusca, founded in 1582, became the role model for a number of others oriented towards languages, and another one, Die Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina (1652), considered the oldest academy of science, has many followers throughout Europe. The European population of academies thus constitutes a network of elite institutions, largely based on the selection of new members by those who already are members. As a result academies and their members live in symbiosis: academies elect distinguished members in order to raise its reputation, and members get reputation by being members. Academies thereby appear to have become important for science policy in general and the selection of experts for science policy decisions in particular. Against this backdrop, the chapter aims at demonstrating the role of academies in policy decisions. For this purpose the chapter will briefly summarize the development of academies over time. This exposition will be followed by an analysis of the characteristics of academies. It will point to the two important roles expressed in mission statements of academies: (1) international collaboration and (2) interaction with society. These roles are played both by individual members and the national academies themselves. However, like many other organizational fields, that of academies has seen the emergence of organizations that organize individual organizations, sometimes labelled meta-organizations. The development of these international organizations will be summarized in a subsequent section, followed by one dealing with the relationship between European academies and society. A final section will present conclusions and discuss their implications for European science policy.

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Dietmar Braun

While the making of the European Research Area has caused a lot of debates in recent years, there is still less attention paid to the construction of the European Funding Area. This area is still subject to constant changes in the composition and functional division. Examples are the recent foundation of the European Research Council and the imminent dissolution of the European Science Foundation. For a long time the European Funding Area (EFA) has emerged in an incremental way by widening its scope and adding new actors and interests. It is the question whether the existing order with a multitude of actors (supranational, transnational, national; funding agencies, policy-makers, stakeholders), a complex competence distribution and multiple coordination modes is equipped to contribute in an optimal way to the promotion of optimal conditions for research. Our interest in this chapter is to sketch the coordination mode that has been developed in the EFA. In order to assess the implications for European funding it is nevertheless crucial to analyse the “dynamics” of the EFA. Dynamics indicate the interaction patterns and actor games that develop within the order and help to identify tensions, stable and unstable arrangements, and possible changes the order is subject to. This allows speculating about the future of the EFA. “Structure” and “agency” together define the capacity of the existing coordination order in the EFA to contribute to the long-term aims of the European Union like raising the attractiveness of the research place in Europe, contribute to a highly qualified scientific workforce and improve the innovativeness in the European Research Area.

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Paul Lillrank

Business administration deals with phenomena observed, described, conceptualized and exploited in purposeful managerial action. On occasions such findings and ensuing principles expand to claim universal applicability, turning into panaceas. Panaceas can be analyzed by scrutinizing the ontological integrity of the core concept, by explicating the associated metrics, and by testing the efficacy of the proposed technologies of managerial action.
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Östen Ohlsson and Björn Rombach

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Ariane Berthoin Antal

Did the 2011 announcement by The Economist that ‘business has much to learn from the arts’ signal another short-lived management fad? Or might it mean that artistic interventions have entered the mainstream so that working with people, products and practices from the world of the arts can help employees to generate meaningful improvements in organizations and society? This chapter draws on multi-stakeholder research to frame the potential for organizational learning with artists, highlighting how they can complement consultants in contextualizing such processes. Three cases illustrate how artistic interventions can offer an aesthetically-aware approach to contextualizing organizational learning. The chapter identifies essential preconditions, namely (a) that managers conceive of artists as partners rather than as suppliers, and of themselves as co-learners with the employees and artists rather than as paymasters and controllers, and (b) that they communicate the value they attach to the process in both word and deed.
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Susan Rosina Whittle

The chapter conceptualizes management panaceas as narrative interventions into organizational identity and asserts that organization members unable to change their stories about organizing and managing may be able to adopt but will struggle to adapt these rational myths to serve their specific contexts. Theorizing management panaceas as ideologies and as methodologies can provide some insights into adoption and adaption problems by enhancing our understanding of the maladaptive practices to which panaceas are prone. To absorb management panaceas into their strategic and everyday narratives, managers need to counter the defensive dynamics of simplification and fundamentalism that characterize these innovations. Researchers can help but this will mean changing our own narratives about panaceas.
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Timothy Clark, Pojanath Bhatanacharoen and David Greatbatch

In this chapter we examine how management gurus through the telling of epiphanic and non-epiphanic stories convey the level of adaptability of their ideas. We argue that for their ideas to leave the auditorium with the audience members they have to present them in ways which convincingly demonstrate that they are potentially pertinent to the variety of working lives of those who attend. Drawing on a Conversation Analytic approach, the chapter shows that in the post-story assessment the gurus use a double structure of humor then seriousness. The contrast between the light-heartedness of the story and the seriousness of the post-story conclusion provides emphasis to the message being delivered as well as the transition from the specifics of the story to the general applicability of the ideas being conveyed. Overall, the chapter argues that these stories provide attention and emphasis to central messages within these talks and thereby supply the underpinning conditions necessary for gurus’ ideas to flow beyond the venue of their talks.
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Stephan Bohn, Anne Galander and Peter Walgenbach

It is a challenge for companies to simultaneously follow corporate social responsibility (CSR) and the profit maximization premise as principles guiding their activities. Handling conflicting demands is a topic of increasing interest in institutional literature. We use the case of CSR implementation to develop a model of the organizational implementation and handling of emerging conflicting institutional demands. We build on and differentiate between the well-established theoretical concepts of isomorphism, translation and decoupling on different implementation levels. We argue that it is necessary to distinguish between a rhetorical and a structural handling. We further show that companies apply a strategy that creates tolerance for ambivalence.
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Paul Lillrank

In the late 1980s Japanese management turned into a panacea. Japanese manufacturers made deep inroads in export markets of several high-visibility products, such as automobiles. The successes required explanations, which were presented primarily by foreign observers. The case was made in a wide variety of terms ranging from national culture and industrial policies to work practices and quality circles. As the Japanese bubble economy crashed and the 1990s turned into a lost decade that still continues, several of the issues that were used to explain success now explained failure. The Japanese case is a reminder that the success of a nation is not equal to the success of a few leading industries and that managerial action seldom is powerful enough to overrule macroeconomic and demographic trends.
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Anders Örtenblad, Peter Lamb and Shih-wei Hsu

In this chapter, it is suggested that the act of relevance-testing and adapting management ideas and panaceas to better fit organizations in certain contexts should not only be something that researchers are capable of performing. Students should learn how to wisely conduct these processes by themselves, rather than to having to trust that researchers do it for them. The aim of the chapter is to outline a guide for how relevance-testing and adaptation of any particular management idea or panacea for any particular organization or organizations in any generalized context can be taught at higher educational universities.