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Daniel Ericsson and Monika Kostera

The Introduction presents hope and organizing as radical ideas in the times of the interregnum. The book is outlined and its main thrust is narrated.

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Organizing Hope

Narratives for a Better Future

Edited by Daniel Ericsson and Monika Kostera

Crumbling social institutions, disintegrating structures, and a profound sense of uncertainty are the signs of our time. In this book, this contemporary crisis is explored and illuminated, providing narratives that suggest how the notion of hope can be leveraged to create powerful methods of organizing for the future. Chapters first consider theoretical and philosophical perspectives on hopeful organizing, followed by both empirical discussions about achieving change and more imaginative narratives of alternative and utopian futures, including an exploration of the differing roles of work, creativity, idealism, inclusivity and activism.
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Anke Strauß and Christina Ciupke

Hope is a paradoxical place. It is where we store what we long for and what we are fearful of at the same time. It is where we acknowledge the fragility of our lives. Hope lies in uncertainty.

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Edited by Daniel Ericsson and Monika Kostera

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Morten Frederiksen

This chapter investigates and clarifies the relationship between trust in institutions, trust in people and the interaction between these forms of trust from a phenomenological perspective. The analysis takes its point of departure in Luhmann’s analysis of risk and danger as residing in different experiences of temporality. Building on the phenomenology of Løgstrup, the chapter argues that the experience of confidence belongs in the temporality of continuity – of stable contexts and dangers not associated with agency. Trust, it is argued, is in fact not a reaction to risk but, rather, a different phenomenological mode. Trust resides in a temporality of process and an unguarded attitude, whereas risk resides in a temporality of events, calculation and potential regret. Institutions interact with trust in providing familiar ways of proceeding in situations, determining when risk or trust seems appropriate. The notions of trust compartments and risk compartments are introduced to describe the way people phenomenologically map social topographies of trust/process and risk/event from institutional embedding.

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Uffe Kjærgaard Hansen, Maria Bosse and Mette Apollo Rasmussen

Describing the processes of trusting empirically, at the micro level, is a challenging affair. One way to focus and nuance our understanding of trusting is to pay attention to how expectations are negotiated and changed. The suggested framework of symbolic interaction is explored in the chapter through an empirical example in the form of rich description of the ongoing and challenging relationship between an investment manager and an entrepreneurial team. The ethnographic narrative offers a rich description of how expectations are negotiated and changed as part of trusting interactions. It provides readers with insights into the relationship between expectations and trusting and how the developed framework based on symbolic interactions constitutes a productive framework for studying trusting from a process perspective.

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Edited by Søren Jagd and Lars Fuglsang

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May-Britt Ellingsen

This chapter explores the relationship between trust and social change. It presents a process view on trust based on interactionism and classic sociology combined with a grounded theory methodology. Development and maintenance of trust – trusting – is a dynamic and multi-level process of social construction, a process of sensemaking based on interplay between pre-contractual, relational and structural social bases. Mutual understanding is the engine of the trust process. Mutual understanding triggers the leap of faith from doubt into trusting. The chapter analyses how changes in economic organization on the macro level – deregulation – can transform a trust relationship on the micro level – here between savings bank and customer. Social changes on the macro level influence trust relationships on the micro level; deregulation transforms the social bases for trust between savings bank and customer, and trust is lost and then restored. Social change is changes in the social bases for trust. This study is not about testing a hypothesis, but explores social processes and grounds theories and concepts in empirical findings. Focus is on the social foundation of trusting and the social construction of mutual understanding, which is an unexplored perspective in trust research. The chapter aims to reduce this gap of knowledge.

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Kirsten Mogensen

At the end of every violent conflict, leaders must help citizens make sense of the human suffering endured and thereby help create a foundation for reconciliation. In Aceh, Indonesia, representatives of the two conflicting groups chose to tell stories in which life was perceived as better after the war than it had been before, because new institutions would secure the dignity of people. This explorative study contributes to research in trust as a process with analyses of seven episodes. They demonstrate that, in retrospect, trust and risk assessment has been an ongoing intersubjective process in which trust repertoires were continually adapted, first throughout decades of war and later during peace negotiations and decommission. Analyses of their stories also give us indications of what bases of trust people rely on in high-risk situations. For example, there are indications that perceptions of the divine can provide an alternative framework for sensemaking during times when institutions cannot support trust.

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Lovisa Näslund

This chapter argues that trust creation may be conceptualized as a process of interactional sensemaking between trustor and trustee. Empirically, the study is based on interviews with Swedish management consultants and clients, considering the client–consultant relationship as it evolves during sales meetings and collaboration. It is shown that the trust-creating process relies on improvisational skills, which require experience, and is facilitated by shared frames of reference, as would be provided by a common habitus.