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Edited by Russell Sandberg, Norman Doe, Bronach Kane and Caroline Roberts

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Edited by Satvinder Singh Juss

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Edited by Lukasz Gruszczynski

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Edited by Lukasz Gruszczynski

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Edited by Jeff Kenner, Izabela Florczak and Marta Otto

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Edited by Jeff Kenner, Izabela Florczak and Marta Otto

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Sergio Carrera, Juan Santos Vara and Tineke Strik

In this introduction to the book, the editors explain the relevance of analysing the constitutional aspects of the external dimension of EU migration and asylum policies. They argue that the labelling of the large arrival of refugees in 2015 as a crisis has severely affected the principles of the rule of law and the interinstitutional balance, which were just established with the Lisbon Treaty in 2009. The authors substantiate that the contributions in the book move beyond the state of the art in the literature by connecting the internal and external dimensions of EU migration and asylum policy and by analysing old and new patterns of external cooperation on migration. Through that lens, they identify a tendency of informalisation of the external cooperation, leading to ‘de-constitutionalisation’ of the EU decision-making in this field. This process raises questions on the EU’s legitimacy of the external cooperation on migration, which are dealt with in the book. The third part of the introductory chapter summarises the contributions in the book.

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Mies Westerveld and Marius Olivier

What attempts have been made to extend social security coverage to informal workers? What types of regulatory and normative frameworks are needed in countries with developed systems of labour law and social insurance? And what can we learn from attempts to make or keep social security all inclusive? In this book, in addition to the introductory cross-cutting chapters, academics from countries with systems of social security at different levels of development reflected on such questions, using their own scientific or national affiliation as starting point. In this last chapter we look at commonalities and we look at the question of whether the analyses and exemplary reports – that were presented under the heading ‘thematic’, ‘regional’ and ‘country case studies’ – provide inspiration for future steps.

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Jos Boertjens, Johan van Manen, Misja Mikkers and Wolf Sauter

Because the risk of ill health is part of the human condition, there is a universal interest in providing access to high-quality healthcare while controlling the sacrifices that are necessary to obtain it – after all, the funds used for healthcare cannot be allocated to alternative uses. Affordability is therefore an important consideration that is closely linked to access. Quality determines the health value of the treatment provided. Arriving at a social consensus on how to achieve these goals is difficult, however, which in most countries leads to intense debate on healthcare, as the contributions to this book regarding the US, South Africa, Colombia and the Netherlands all illustrate. Unsurprisingly, there is no one particular healthcare system that meets all three of the needs identified above perfectly. Instead, there is a wide variety of such systems, each with different advantages, disadvantages and trade-offs. Hence it is important that data on the problems encountered are collected and analysed, and that learning occurs between different health systems. This is a practical as well as a scientific challenge, because hitherto most studies on healthcare regulation have not taken a comparative perspective based on comparable data. In fact, in many respects, no such data yet exists. This book charts hospital financing across the three dimensions of access, affordability and quality. It does so based on an international comparison spanning four different continents. For the purpose of our project, we have collected 11 country reports, compiled by national experts according to a standard structure. In addition, six thematic chapters are included that explore specific questions. The invited authors include academics and practitioners (primarily, but not exclusively, policymakers).

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Jos Boertjens and Mary Guy

In this chapter the authors compare the health care systems of England and the Netherlands with respect to contracting, accountability frameworks and the duty to provide care and access to health care. The objectives of contracting are different in these two countries. While in the Netherlands contracting is envisaged to promote efficiency and quality, contracting in England appears to set a minimum requirement. Under the Dutch system, the insurer must fulfill its duty to provide care. In England it is difficult to hold any party accountable for ensuring that patients receive necessary care. Various types of co-payments and out-of-pocket charges occur in both England and the Netherlands. In both countries personal care budgets exist to put patients in charge of their own budgets.