This chapter discusses how research can be part of a social action agenda to build new economies. This research is based on collaborations between researchers and research participants, and involves three interwoven strategies. The first focuses on developing new languages of economy; the second, on decentring economic subjectivity; and the third, on collective actions to consolidate and build economic initiatives. The chapter illustrates how these strategies feature in three research projects. The first project was based in the Philippines and involved working with an NGO and two municipalities to pilot pathways for endogenous economic development. The second project was based in the US Northeast and used participatory mapping techniques to reveal the use and stewardship of marine resources. The third project was based in Australia and focused on environmentally sustainable and socially and economically just forms of manufacturing. These projects resulted in collective actions that created new economic options.
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Jenny Cameron and Katherine Gibson
Isaac Lyne and Anisah Madden
This chapter looks at social enterprise through a lens inspired by community economies and post-development. Without refuting that any trading enterprise must take form in one way or another, the authors look beyond essentialist models towards the embodiment of ‘social enterprising’; a term capturing various processes and intuitions that enact the social through bold economic experiments and that help multispecies communities to live well together. ‘Decolonial love’ and Buddhist teachings of ‘loving kindness’ (Mettā) are mobilized as a way of framing context in Eastern Cambodia and a University Town in Central Canada. Practices of mundane maintenance also offer an alternative to the developmental discourse premised on innovation, while a ‘reparative stance’ and attention to small narratives helps avoid undue pessimism about the significance of this mundane work.
John Spriggs, Barbara Chambers and Carole Kayrooz
John Spriggs, Barbara Chambers and Carole Kayrooz
Agriculture is more affected by climate change, it contributes more to GHG emissions, but it also offers more development opportunities in a climate change perspective than other sectors. This chapter asks whether the food value chain is climate change resilient under the present international regulatory framework. The research hypothesis is that a legal analysis of the issues at stake has to include the specific situation of weak states, small farmers and poor consumers. This is a still under-researched issue of policy space and tools coherence both at national and international levels. Climate change affects poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Hence mitigation and adaptation strategies need to consider other issues including production subsidies, productivity, non-food uses of agricultural land such as biofuels for local production and for exports, biotechnology, standards and labelling, carbon taxation and emission trading, water and fish, risk insurance and export restrictions, food stockpiles, mitigation of various vulnerabilities, gender, local and international migration and violence. From a regulatory perspective the relevant question is whether the present policies and tools promoting food production, investment and trade are good enough to cope with the additional challenge of global warming. This overview shows that today’s regulatory deficits are anything but climate change-resilient. The presently non-negotiable deficiencies of several WTO rules, and the lack of stringent disciplines for trade-distorting farm and fish subsidies, jeopardize climate action for agriculture. There is a need to review regional trade agreements and sectorial agreements including on energy, aviation, water management, shipping, fishing and migration – even the preferential treatment of climate-friendly products and processing methods from developing countries. Changes are also required for international investment treaties. Foreign direct investment in agriculture is under-regulated and over-protected. However, required first and foremost are multilaterally agreed climate-smart best farming and processing practices. These standards would then need to be enshrined in a credible multilateral environmental agreement, and protected against legal challenges in the WTO, similarly to internationally agreed food safety standards. This exercise quite possibly implies some new and climate-specific trade and investment rules for agriculture, water and aquaculture. Absent such new or modified rules, climate change – if it continues according to scientific forecasts – might marginalize some of the net food-importing developing countries even more, and drive poor smallholders out of business even faster. Key Words: climate change, agriculture, trade, investment, development, WTO
The evidence of climate change is now irrefutable. African ecosystems are already being affected by climate change, which will further amplify existing stress on water availability in Africa, with strong adverse effects on food security. Kenya faces climate change impacts in its development efforts, particularly in the vulnerability of smallholder, mainly rain-fed, agriculture, to climate variability. The chapter examines the role of the law in framing appropriate tools that can be deployed for use by the government and farmers in order to coordinate adaptation strategies in a manner that builds resilience, and enhances adaptive capacity. In particular, the argument is that it is necessary to pursue mainstreaming of climate change strategies into agriculture law and policy priorities, in order to ensure that from national policy to land use choices by farmers, adaptation is internalized as an imperative for agriculture decision making. Key Words: climate change, adaptation, agriculture, economy, land use, extension