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David Kaufmann

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Liam Clegg

In this chapter, the central lines of analysis developed in the book as a whole are introduced. The main engagement offered is with literatures on international organisations where the ‘constrained experimentalist’ model of operational change offers an extension to existing studies. In addition, findings over the difficulties of securing progressive outcomes through market-based mechanisms in regulatory states of the global South, and over mismatches between visions of the post-Washington Consensus and recent World Bank practice, are outlined.

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Liam Clegg

This final chapter provides a brief recap of the core insights that have been advanced through the book as a whole, and reviews emerging dynamics in the World Bank’s engagement with housing micro-finance, and sanitation and water supply. The growing engagement with housing micro-finance and non-network sanitation services contains clear pro-poor targeting, but these seem likely to remain marginal features of operational practice. In contrast, given the established flow of resources being directed toward water supply, attempts to introduce an enhanced pro-poor focus in the area has the potential to generate widespread improvements. It remains to be seen, however, whether supportive developments inside the Bank and receptive policy frameworks amongst its borrowers will enable this focus to be sustained and expanded.

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The informal model

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

Across sub-Saharan Africa, national housing systems are typically characterised by high levels of informal housing provision, with the state and market-based mechanisms playing a relatively limited role. Initially, a substantial volume of World Bank lending was channelled into the region, and targeted at improving the standard of shelter in informal settlements. However, over recent decades, the flow of resources has reduced markedly, and come to focus on mortgage market expansion. The Tanzanian case reflects these overall dynamics, with the bulk of recent World Bank lending being used to create a mortgage liquidity facility. The direct impact of this facility is enjoyed by higher-income groups able to access related circuits of capital, with the lower-income population continuing to rely on informal mechanisms for housing supply and improvement.

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Lending for housing at the World Bank

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

The World Bank commenced its housing operations in 1972. This chapter identifies three main phases in these operations, which have seen a progressive reduction in the organisation’s pro-poor targeting. The interactions between internal processes of trial-and-error-based learning and personnel shifts, which have driven the evolution of the Bank’s approach to lending for housing, are reviewed.

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The mixed provision model

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

In this chapter, an exploration of World Bank lending for housing across Latin America is combined with a detailed review of the Mexican case. In the region, housing systems tend to incorporate significant volumes of state-led, market-based, and informal housing supply. World Bank lending initially supported governments’ efforts to strengthen their capacity to act as provider states in the realm of housing, before in more recent years promoting moves toward more regulatory modes of engagement. In Mexico, the turn in World Bank lending toward mortgage market expansion coincided with the transition from the PRI to the PAN administration. While the Bank has assisted in the creation of a national mortgage liquidity facility, the needs of low-income populations in informal settlements have attracted relatively little attention from the organisation, and remain under-served through the Mexican housing system.

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The state socialist model

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

World Bank lending for housing into state socialist housing systems was focused predominantly through the 1990s. In addition to providing a review of transformations in state socialist systems across the former Soviet Union and its near neighbourhood, the movements in China towards a market-based socialist model are reviewed. While across the former Soviet Union and its neighbourhood World Bank efforts to support the creation of marketised systems have achieved variable levels of success, in the case of China deep transformation has been realised. Nonetheless, concerns are flagged over the extent to which the housing needs of low-income groups have been incorporated into both World Bank lending and these reformed systems overall.

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Edited by Kenneth A. Reinert

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Devesh Roy

Globalisation has transformed agriculture trade in fundamental ways. There is a rising share of high-value and processed food products and falling importance of bulky low-value items. At the same time, marketing channels have changed structurally, with larger and more concentrated sellers of final products and inputs involving multinational enterprises. With the growth in demand for processed products, globalisation has also resulted in a concentration in processing. Further, food services sectors and intellectual property issues have become important in agricultural trade. As these changes occur, developing countries have been beset with continuous fragmentation of land holdings, pitching smaller farmers against oligopsonistic buyer and oligopolistic sellers. However, because of changing demand for types of product and product attributes, as well as greater value addition, poor countries and smaller farmers have significant opportunities from globalisation. Exploiting these opportunities requires innovations that incorporate the comparative advantage of smaller countries and farmers and coordination to improve bargaining power.