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Edited by John Mikler and Karsten Ronit

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Silvana Bartoletto

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Silvana Bartoletto

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Marcus Haward

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Diane Stone

Epistocracy is on the rise. The chapters in this volume all document, in one way or another, the role of experts and knowledge organizations in the development of global policies and their implementation by international organizations, donor agencies, and other globally mobile policy actors. The constellations of these actors are called here ‘transnational policy commu¬nities’. They form around a specific policy problem (like refugees or ocean pollution) or alternatively around a policy sector (like global health policy or global environmental policy). Other terms have been used in this volume. Eve Fouilleux writes about the concept of a transnational ‘organizational/institu¬tional field’ that is composed of both a set of institutions, including practices, understandings, and rules as well as a network of organizations. It matters less the terminology used, and the disciplinary or conceptual frame adopted, as all the chapters point to new spaces for making global policy not only inside inter¬national organizations but also in their interactions. These transnational policy communities help fill the void of authority at the global and regional levels where there are ‘non jurisdictional spaces’ such as the oceans, the Antarctic, or global care chains.

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Edited by David Dolowitz, Magdaléna Hadjiisky and Romuald Normand

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Attila Ágh

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Liam Clegg

In this chapter, the central lines of analysis developed in the book as a whole are introduced. The main engagement offered is with literatures on international organisations where the ‘constrained experimentalist’ model of operational change offers an extension to existing studies. In addition, findings over the difficulties of securing progressive outcomes through market-based mechanisms in regulatory states of the global South, and over mismatches between visions of the post-Washington Consensus and recent World Bank practice, are outlined.

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Liam Clegg

This final chapter provides a brief recap of the core insights that have been advanced through the book as a whole, and reviews emerging dynamics in the World Bank’s engagement with housing micro-finance, and sanitation and water supply. The growing engagement with housing micro-finance and non-network sanitation services contains clear pro-poor targeting, but these seem likely to remain marginal features of operational practice. In contrast, given the established flow of resources being directed toward water supply, attempts to introduce an enhanced pro-poor focus in the area has the potential to generate widespread improvements. It remains to be seen, however, whether supportive developments inside the Bank and receptive policy frameworks amongst its borrowers will enable this focus to be sustained and expanded.

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The informal model

Mortgaging Development

Liam Clegg

Across sub-Saharan Africa, national housing systems are typically characterised by high levels of informal housing provision, with the state and market-based mechanisms playing a relatively limited role. Initially, a substantial volume of World Bank lending was channelled into the region, and targeted at improving the standard of shelter in informal settlements. However, over recent decades, the flow of resources has reduced markedly, and come to focus on mortgage market expansion. The Tanzanian case reflects these overall dynamics, with the bulk of recent World Bank lending being used to create a mortgage liquidity facility. The direct impact of this facility is enjoyed by higher-income groups able to access related circuits of capital, with the lower-income population continuing to rely on informal mechanisms for housing supply and improvement.