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Viktor A. Venhorst
The chapter investigates job-switch strategies of graduates from Dutch HEIs residing in core and non-core areas: to what extent are residential and workplace mobility coupled with switches across industrial sectors? Registry data from Statistics Netherlands enables us to track graduation cohorts from seven years before to eighteen years after graduation. Overall, the likelihood of labour-market dynamics varies strongly with the life-phase in which we find graduates. The chapter finds that, like migration, job mobility is not a random event. It occurs, in some cases, repeatedly, to specific groups who appear to operate at the edges of the job-opportunity space. The chapter finds that sector and workplace mobility appear contemporarily positively inter-related, persistent, but also inter-temporally competing. Residential mobility appears somewhat disconnected from labour-market dynamics, although it appears that some wait for a match to come to fruition before changing residences. Mobility is higher across the board for graduates residing in non-core areas, with non-core singles found to be relatively mobile. The chapter demonstrates that it is not the presence of a partner as such that limits spatial mobility, but whether or not he or she is economically active. Controlling for this, and contrary to what is often reported in migration literature, the chapter finds that couples without children, living in non-core areas, are more likely to exhibit residential mobility than singles. They are also more likely to engage in sectoral and workplace mobility. Non-core couples with children are also found to be more likely to engage in residential mobility than singles.
Jonathan Corcoran and Alessandra Faggian
K. Bruce Newbold
Despite the broad interest in the migration of graduates, there is little comparative literature in the Canadian context. Based upon Statistics Canada’s National Graduates Survey, this chapter provides an exploratory analysis examining the migration behaviours of students following graduation from post-secondary institutions, while controlling for socio-demographic factors and various factors reflecting employment and education. Particular attention is paid to the type of post-graduate migration, distinguishing between repeat migrants (including return migrants) and first-time migrants who move post-graduation. In addition, the chapter examines differences in migration by type of degree, distinguishing post-secondary degree types including certificates and diplomas, which are typically granted by vocationally oriented colleges, and degrees such as bachelor’s, master’s or PhDs, which are typically granted by universities. Results are broadly consistent with the literature, with the level of human capital an important determinant of migration.
Raul Ramos and Vicente Royuela
This chapter studies the impact of the Great Recession on the migration of graduates in Spain, a country with traditionally low international mobility for graduates. However, the strong impact of the Great Recession has dramatically altered the mobility patterns of residents in Spain. The chapter’s empirical analysis first adopts a macro approach and takes advantage of the recent publication of IAB brain-drain data. It analyses aggregate trends of the stock of Spanish migrants in twenty OECD destination countries by gender, country of origin and educational level, for the period 1980–2010. Next, it uses individual data from different surveys addressed to Catalan graduates and recent PhD holders carried out by the Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency (AQU) in order to provide new evidence on the drivers and impacts of changing trends in their migration behaviour. The chapter’s analysis shows that international migration of university graduates has boomed in recent years. Such flows are responsive to differences in incomes with other countries. Graduates with a higher propensity to migrate are those with higher grades in their degree, previous mobility experiences and foreign-language knowledge.
Roberta Comunian, Sarah Jewell and Alessandra Faggian
Current research in regional science and economic geography has been placing increasing emphasis on the role played by the attraction and retention of graduates in shaping patterns of local economic development in Europe and internationally. Within this growing field of study, the patterns of migration of graduates has been explored in detail and its connection with personal benefits for the individual (higher salaries) and regional cumulative outcomes have been examined. Another trend, which has received some, although marginal, attention, is the increase in female participation and achievement in higher education. The scope of this chapter is to consider the interconnection between these two fields in graduate studies: gender and migration patterns. Using data from the 2006/07 cohort longitudinal DLHE survey, migration patterns of graduates are explored, with particular focus on gender dynamics. Graduates are classified according to their sequential migration behaviour first from their pre-university domicile to university, then from university to first job post-graduation, and finally their job 3.5 years after graduation. The chapter further focuses on the potential salary benefits of migration decisions and their difference across the two gender groups. It also explores how these migration patterns and the potential salary benefits of migration vary across different subject groups.
Simona Iammarino and Elisabetta Marinelli
This chapter analyses the micro-level determinants of the education–job (mis)matches of recent university graduates in Italy. As the Italian graduate population has experienced increasing internal migration, this paper focuses in particular on the role of inter-regional migration in driving education–job match. The methodology takes into account both the endogenous relationship between migration and employment, and the self-selection bias between employment and education–job (mis)match. Using a survey on Italian graduates’ entry into the labour market, it is found that whilst migration at the national level is confirmed to have a positive role in both finding a job and decreasing the probability of over-education, robust differences emerge when looking at the sub-national dimension. Indeed, the northern regions, by receiving inflows of southern graduates who manage to attain a good education–job match in the recipient labour markets, are apparently reaping part of the return to the investment in university education born in the south.